What was heralded as "arguably the biggest discovery in the history of science" last week -- a fossilized organism embedded in a meteorite which
arrived on Earth from Mars -- is the first evidence of life beyond our own world. Could advanced life forms have existed on the Red Planet millions of
years ago? Robert Bauval and bestselling author Graham Hancock, whose book, Fingerprints of the Gods, was the publishing phenomenon of last year,
believe there is evidence to support this. Monumental structures on the planet's surface have mystified scientists for 20 years. Are they the result
of natural processes... or the remains of a great civilization? Decide for yourself.
The "Face on Mars" was identified on Viking frame 35A72 by Dr. Tobias Owen, who is now professor of astronomy at the University of Hawaii. The same
frame, covering approximately 34 by 31 miles -- also shows many other features that could be artificial.
If you look at this face on Mars, it is eerily similiar to the sphinx,
This face can lead to many leads about the sphinx.
These cluster around latitude 40 degrees north in the region of Mars known to astronomers as Cydonia, and were photographed from an altitude of more
than 1,000 miles with relatively poor resolution.
A casual glance reveals only a jumble of hills, craters and escarpments. Gradually, however, as though a veil is being lifted, the blurred scene
begins to feel organized and structured - too intelligent to be the result of random natural processes.
Although the scale is grander, it looks the way some archaeological sites on Earth might look if photographed from 1,000 miles up.
The more closely you examine it, the more it is apparent that it really could be an ensemble of enormous ruined monuments on the surface of Mars.
For a long while after the 1976 Viking photographs, NASA and other scientific authorities continued to disseminate what one researcher calls "the
bogus claim that the 'Face' is a trick of light and shadow".
This notion began to be challenged seriously only when Vincent Di Pietro, a computer scientist and former NASA consultant, discovered another image of
the "Face" on frame 70A13.
This second image, which had been acquired 35 Martian days later than the first one and under different lighting conditions, made possible comparative
views and detailed measurements of the "Face."
Complete with its distinctive sphinx-like headdress, it is now known to be almost 1.6 miles long from crown to chin, 1.2 miles wide and just under
2,000 ft.. high. Image analysts say the bilateral symmetry of the "Face," which has a natural, almost human appearance, is most unlikely to have
come about by chance.
This impression is confirmed by other characteristics that have subsequently been identified under computer enhancement. These include 'teeth' in
the mouth, bilaterally crossed lines above the eyes, and regular lateral stripes on the headpiece -- suggestive, to some researchers at least, of the
headdress of ancient Egyptian pharaohs.
According to Dr. Mark Carlotto, an expert in image processing, all "these features appear in both the Viking images, and are coherent shapes
structurally integral to the object. Thus they could not have been caused by random interference or artifacts of the image restoration and enhancement
So, knowing that there is a pyramid on Mars, suggests to me that aliens may have helped build the Great Pyramids,a and the
PYRAMIDS AND TOWERS
The same is also true for the "D&M Pyramid" (named after Di Pietro and his associate Gregory Molenaar, also a former NASA contractor, who discovered
This five-sided structure stands about ten miles from the "Face" and, like the Great Pyramid of Egypt, is aligned virtually north-south towards the
spin axis of the planet.
Its shortest side is a mile, its long axis extends to almost two miles and it is half a mile high.
Commenting on the proximity of the "Face" and the "D&M Pyramid," American researcher Richard Hoagland asks a pointed question: "What are the odds
against two terrestrial-like monuments on such an alien planet and in essentially the same location?"
Hoagland has made his own detailed study of Frame 35A72 and has identified additional, possibly artificial, features.
These include the so called "Fort," with its two distinctive straight edges, and the "City," which he describes as "a remarkably rectilinear
arrangement of massive structures interspersed with several smaller pyramids."
Hoagland also points out another striking fact about the "City:" it seems to have been sited in such a way that the inhabitants would have enjoyed a
perfect, almost ceremonial, view of the "Face."
The impression of a great ritual center, shrouded under the dust of ages, is enhanced by other features of Cydonia, such as the Tholus, a massive
mound similar to Britain's Silbury Hill, and the "City Square," a grouping of four mounds centered on a fifth, smaller mound.
This configuration, so suggestive of cross hairs, turns out to be located at the exact lateral center of the "City."
In addition, a group of British researchers based in Glasgow has recently identified what looks like a massive four-sided pyramid, the so called "NK
Pyramid," 25 miles west of the "Face" and on the same latitude (40.8 degrees north) as the "D&M Pyramid."
In the same general area is a feature called the "Bowl," approached by a tapered ram that has been likened to the stairway of a Mexican pyramid.
"Looking at the whole of Cydonia," says Chris O'Kane of the Mars Project UK, "my gut feeling is that these structures have to be artificial."
O'Kane's hunch is strengthened by the fact that "many of the structures are non-fractal." In plain English this means that their contours have
been scanned and assessed as artificial by highly sophisticated computers.
"What we have, therefore," sums up O'Kane, "is an improbable assortment of anomalies. They have alignments, they're grouped, and they're
non-fractal." Nor is Cydonia the only site on Mars to have yielded photographic evidence of unusual and apparently artificial structures.
Pyramids have been identified elsewhere, notably in the region known as Elysium, on the opposite side of the planet where , as early as 1971, NASA's
Mariner 9 spacecraft photographed a group of mile-high three-sided structures.
Other Martian features that are decidedly non-fractal include a straight line more than three miles long defined by a row of small pyramids, extensive
rhomboidal enclosures in the south polar region, and a weird, castle-like edifice rising to a steeple more than 2,000 ft. high.
If there was a civilization on Mars capable of creating such monuments, then what might have happened to it?
A WAR OR A FLOOD MAY HAVE WIPED OUT LIFE ON MARS
Since extensive damage typical of explosive penetration is apparent on some of the structures, notably the "D&M Pyramid," more than one researcher
has suggested that the Martians might have destroyed themselves in a suicidal war. A geological cataclysm is another possibility.
Analysis of the Martian meteorite suggests the Red Planet was warm and wet - an environment that is likely to have been hospitable to life. Today, it
is permanently frozen.
The change may have been caused by a very large and rapid slippage of Mars's outer crust, a phenomenon which has also been cited as a possible cause
of the cataclysmic end of Earth's last Ice Age 13,000 years ago.
Evidence reported in Scientific American in 1985 confirms that Mars did at some unknown stage in its history, suffer a catastrophic crustal
If this had happened during the planet's warm and wet phase, any civilization present at that time would almost certainly have been wiped out in the
ensuing global floods and earthquakes, leaving behind only whatever scattered ruins and monuments were massive and stable enough to survive.
The pyramids and the sphinx on Mars seem to fit the bill. And if they are artificial, then the implications for our idea of ourselves and our place in
the universe are shattering.
One top priority in President Bill Clinton's recently announced program of intensified Mars exploration should be a mission to find out for sure,
particularly so since NASA has hitherto refused to include Cydonia in the list of more than 150 sites of scientific interest that it recognizes
officially on Mars.
Similarly, investigators would be unwise to ignore the fact that there is a region very like Cydonia on Earth -- Egypt's famous Giza plateau -- which
has its own distinctive pyramids and Sphinx.
Associated with these ancient monuments is a tradition that they were built by an antediluvian race as repositories for scrolls and books of past
ages, and intended "to prevent the ancient wisdom from being lost in the Flood."
Could that flood have been the cataclysmic 400 ft. rise in sea levels that we know took place 13,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age? And
could there be some sort of bizarre interplanetary connection, not yet understood, between the story of civilization on Earth and on Mars?
THE MYSTERIES OF MARS:
COSMIC SEED AND THE ORIGIN OF LIFE
WERE MEN BROUGHT TO EARTH BY A METEORITE?
Is there an extraordinary connection between the Martian meteorite containing what scientists believe to be a fossilized organism and mysterious
structures on the surface of the Red Planet? Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock, authors of the number one bestseller Keeper Of Genesis ( Message of the
Sphinx ), which was serialized in the Mail earlier this year, believe there could be. On Saturday, in the first part of their controversial series,
they described the strange monumental objects in Cydonia, a region of Mars, and how they could be the remains of a long-dead civilization. They also
pointed at the bizarre similarity between a structure called "The Face" and the Egyptian Sphinx. Today, in the second part, Bauval and Hancock focus
on the other inexplicable links between Mars and ancient Egypt .
At some points in its orbit Mars passes less than 30 million miles from Earth -- in cosmic terms just outside our front porch compared to the nearest
star, Alpha Centauri, which is 26 thousand billion miles away.
Therefore it is not beyond the bounds of possibility that there could be a connection between life and civilization on Mars and life and civilization
Since time began, Earth has played host to literally millions of strange visitors from outer space -- meteorites. It has been estimated that a million
meteorites hurtle through the Earth's atmosphere every year.
Fortunately most of them are tiny and quickly burn out after entry, appearing to us as "shooting stars." A few survive the atmosphere and reach the
ground. These can be as small as a ping-pong ball or as large as a London bus.
The most spectacular meteorites found on the Earth are the large "oriented" meteorites, so called because they cut through the air retaining their
direction of flight like a cannon shell, with their front part taking the brunt of the frictional heat. When they hit the ground they are found to be
shaped like cones or pyramids.
Wonderful examples of "oriented" meteorites can be seen in museums around the world. a 15-ton "oriented" iron meteorite called Willamette is
displayed in the Smithsonian Institute in New York and another, called Morito, can be seen at the Institute of Metallurgy in Mexico city.
Such an "oriented" meteorite, probably pyramidal in shape, could have been at the root of the mystery of the Giza pyramids.
It is known that long before the so-called pyramid age of Egypt (circa 2,500 BC) a strange pyramidal or conical "stone" was kept within a sanctuary
called the Temple of the Phoenix, 12 miles to the east of Giza in the sacred city of Heliopolis.
This mysterious stone was called the Benben, derived from the root Ben -- a word which Egyptologists say means "seed'' or "procreation."
Other details that ancient Egyptian texts give us about the Benben strengthen the possibility that it may have been a meteorite. We are told that it
came "down from heaven" like the firebird or Phoenix. It was also said to have been "sent by the gods" at the moment of "Creation" -- an epoch
the pharaohs called Zep Tepi, literally meaning "The First Time."
In our book, Keeper Of Genesis, we used the science of astronomical alignments to calculate the date of the "First Time" to 12,500 BC. The
implication, if the Benben was indeed an oriented meteorite, is that it landed in Egypt in precisely the same period during which the meteorite
containing a fossilized organism from Mars arrived in Antarctica.
The original Benben of Heliopolis -- an object that was already old in the time of the ancient Egyptians - is lost. Whatever its origins , it must
have been of paramount importance to the pyramid builders, because stylized replicas of it served as the capstones of all pyramids.
A surviving example, carved in one piece out of a hard stone known as diorite, is in the main hall of the Cairo Museum. On it are two rows of
enigmatic hieroglyphs evoking the "Lord of the Horizon" (the rising sun, according to Egyptologists) and making reference to a deity called Sahu,
identified with the constellation of Orion and the deity Osiris -- the archetypal god of the "First Time," whose "Divine Seed" created humanity.
Beneath the complex layers of symbolism, the ancient Egyptian texts can be taken to link the origins of life -- and civilization -- to the arrival of
a meteorite. Within the past ten years, scientists have independently reached a similar conclusion, arguing that life on Earth may indeed have been
imported -- or "seeded" -- by a meteorite or a comet, billions of years ago.
A striking characteristic of the pyramids and Sphinx of Giza is the way in which they are integrated into a grand architectural plan, based on
mathematical and astronomical data.
There is no evidence that the pyramids were used as tombs. What is certain is that two narrow shafts emanating from inside the Great Pyramid were
directed to two specific stars: Zeta Orionis, one of the three stars in Orion's belt, and Sirius, in the constellation of Canis Major.
It is certain, too, that the principal Giza monuments form an accurate terrestrial "map" of the three stars of Orion's belt as these constellations
appeared in 10,500 BC.
Who could have been observing the skies over Giza in 10,500 BC and who, at that date, could have had the technical capacity to realize such monumental
works as the Sphinx and the pyramids?
Egyptologists assert there was no civilization on Earth at that time, let alone one capable of planning and building such immense, well engineered
structures. If they are right, why do the alignments of Giza so plainly and repetitively mirror the skies of the 11th millennium BC?
Former NASA consultant Richard Hoagland is convinced there may be a "terrestrial connection" between Giza and Cydonia -- the region of Mars where
the mysterious structures are located -- perhaps a common source that imparted the same legacy of knowledge and symbolism on both worlds.
Hoagland's interest in Giza began when he met Dr. Lambert Dolphin, a scientist from the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) who had conducted radar and
seismographic research to locate hidden chambers near and under the Great Sphinx.
Dr. Dolphin was captivated by Hoagland's idea of a "Martian Sphinx" -- the "Face"-- and in 1983, was instrumental in helping Hoagland set up the
Independent Mars Investigation Project under the aegis of SRI.
Hoagland argues that the Face on Mars is "not merely the image of an terrestrial hominid...lying where it has no business being. One half (the right)
is also the perfect image of a cat; specifically a lion - the king of beasts. So the Martian sphinx is in truth the combination of two 'families:'
The discription also fits the lion-bodied, human headed Egyptian Sphinx. Another coincidence is that the ancient Egyptians called the Sphinx
Hor-em-Akhet, meaning "Horus in the Horizon." Horus -- the hawk-god, the divine child of Isis and Osiris -- is a name derived from the Egyptian word
Heru, which translates as "face."
Helped by a mathematician, Erol Torun, Hoagland has also identified a number of intriguing mathematical and geographical connections between Cydonia
Torun was among the first to realize that one of the large "pyramids" on Mars, the "D&M Pyramid," contains a variety of functions and constants
used in a sophisticated mathematical system known as tetrahedral geometry. Evidence of such high mathematics in supposedly natural structures is
strongly suggestive of a conscious design.
The most important recurring feature found in the mathematics of Cydonia is the value 0.865 -- derived from the ratio of e (an important mathematical
constant equal to 2.7) and pi (the mathematical constant of 3.142 used to work out the properties of spheres and circles). This Hoagland terms the
"message of Cydonia."
A trigonometrical function, the arc tangent of e/pi, gives the value of 40.8 which is the Mars latitude on which both the "D&M Pyramid" and the "NK
Pyramid" are sited. Amazingly, another trigonometrical function, the cosine of e/pi, gives the value 30 -- the exact geographical latitude of the
pyramids of Giza on Earth.
Hoagland has demonstrated that the Great Pyramid of Giza contains "tetrahedral" functions identical to those of the "D&M Pyramid" on Mars, and
Torun has shown that the positioning of the Great Sphinx, relative to the pyramids, expresses the Cydonian ratio e/pi.
"The odds of such correlations happening by coincidence on two neighbouring planets are somewhere in the region of one in 7,000," says Hoagland.
What makes coincidence look even less likely is a bizarre link to another ancient site on Earth.
One of the key angles of Cydonia, repeated again and again, is 19.5 degrees. this is precisely the latitude (19.5 degrees north) of the mysterious
Mexican city of Teotihuacan, 'the place where men became gods', with its three distinctive pyramids dedicated respectively to the Sun, the Moon, and
to Quetzalcoatl, the Central American counterpart of Osiris.
With this resemblance to the Sphinx face, on Mars, it seems that it may be likely that life existed before our time. Aliens may have marked a spot
where they will land, or , their knowledge will be found , and that may be inside the Sphinx.
[edit on 7-3-2005 by Shai_lene]
[edit on 7-3-2005 by Shai_lene]