The origins of the Bucegi mountains figure called today the Sphinx and the lost history of these lands are very well illustrated in the monumental
and well documented book "Pre historic Dacia"or "Dacia Preistorica"
by NIcolae Densusianu.
This book has been first published in Romania in 1913 !!!, but its contents remain as
revolutionary, visionary, and controversial as they were almost 100 years ago.
Reading this book is a “must” for all those interested in the birth and evolution of European and Eastern Mediterranean civilizations.
It will turn your world up side down.
The link for the complete online book translated in english is below and the author of the website agrees on the front page with sharing the content
below is the fragment refering to the Sphinx:
XII. 7. Saturn as Zeus aristos megistos euruopa, aigiochos.
His colossal simulacrum on Omul mountain in the Carpathians.
The most important mountain in the southern range of the Carpathians is Bucegi.
This mountain, which is set apart by its majestic height and by the expansion of its horizon, was once very famous. In prehistoric antiquity this was
the holy mountain of the Pelasgian pastoral tribes, for which the extensive plains from the north of Istru were as important as the valleys and crests
of the Carpathians. (This is the same mountain which the Dacians considered as holy, as Strabo writes – VII. 3. 5)
The two highest peaks of this mountain bear even today the names of Caraiman and Omul, and both were once consecrated to the supreme divinities of the
Pelasgian race, one to Cerus manus, megas Ouranos, the other to Saturn, also called “Omul” (TN – the Man).
On the highest point of Omul mountain, rises a gigantic column, usually covered in clouds, and on another peak in its proximity there still exists
today the most important simulacrum of the prehistoric world, a human representation sculpted in live rock, of a truly formidable size. This titanic
figure from the mountains of ancient Dacia, once called of the Hyperboreans, show, by all its characteristics, the image of the supreme divinity of
the Pelasgian times .
[1. Em. Le Marton writes about the position and geological constitution of this rock: It represents a steep slope on the south side of the peak called
Omul, which is the culminant point of the massif of Bucegi. It can be seen that the rock….is of a formidable size, by the human figure which is
about twenty meters in front of it ….The rock ….is composed of three parts, the upper part (above the forehead) is the remainder of a huge
calcareous block, similar to the lower part (from the mouth down). Between the two is seen a conglomerate of sandstone, which forms a band (the
forehead and cheeks)…]
According to the religious ideas of the Pelasgians, the great God of this race was shown intentionally in gigantic forms, so that by the enormous size
of the simulacrum it could express at the same time the power and majesty of this divinity.
Because of this, the supreme divinity of the Pelasgian religion, the god of thunder, lightning and rain, the one who shook the earth, who fertilized
the fields, the valleys and the mountains, had also the epithet Peloros, the Gigant or the big Man (Om), and this Peloros was considered by the
Tessalians as identical with Saturn. Their great feasts of Saturnalia were called Peloria, meaning feasts of the “gigantic Om” or the “big Om”
(Batonis Sinopensis, De Thessalia, frag. 4, in Fragm. Hist. graec. IV.p.349; Pauly, Real-Encyclopadie, p.592).
The great god of Homer’s Iliad (VIII.v.19-27), wanting to give the other Olympians an idea about the immensity of his physical power, addresses them
“Listen to me all, gods and goddesses, as I want to tell you what is in my heart. Over my word nobody should pass, neither goddess, nor god, but all
of you must listen to me, because if I found out that one or other of the gods went in secret to help the Trojans, or the Danaians, they will return
beaten and shamed to Olympus, or I will catch them, and throw them in the dark and remote Tartaros, where there is a very deep abyss underground,
there, where the Iron Gates are, and the Copper Threshold, and then they will know that I am the most powerful of all gods. But if you gods wished so,
try your luck, so that you would be convinced. Bring a gold chain and tie it on Uranos (with the meaning of mountain), then let all gods and goddesses
get a hold on it, and, no matter how hard you will try, you will not be able to drag from Uranos to the plain, your highest master and god; but when I
will decide to grab the chain, then I will instantly pull you up, and the earth and the sea, and I will tie the chain on the peak of Olympus and
everything will stay airborne, this is how much superior I am than the gods and men”.
These words, which Homer had certainly extracted from the ancient ballads of the nomad minstrels, refer in fact to the holy mountains about which we
are talking here.
The Olympus of the Iliad is not the Olympus of Thessaly, but the ancient Olympus from near Okeanos Potamos or Istru, where the “Origin of the
gods” was (Homer, Iliad, XIV.v.199-205), “at the ends of the earth, which fed many people”. The Olympus and Uranos of Homer are the holy
mountains of theogony, Ourea macra (Hesiodus, Theog.v.129, 113), where Uranos, Gaea and Saturn had their residence (Homer, Iliad, VIII.v.470 seqq),
where the people resembled the gods, and where these Titans warred with one another for the mastery of the world.
At the time of the migrations of Pelasgian tribes from the Carpathians towards the southern lands, the renown and legends of this sacred mountain also
descended with them, to all the lands of Hellada, Asia Minor and down to Egypt. As the civilization and the sweet mores of the Pelasgians had an
enormous influence on the Greek people, the same had their beliefs.
The religion of Uranos and Gaea, of Saturn and Rhea, of the Sun and the Moon, or in other words, the entire system of the Pelasgian doctrines, with
their names, their legends about the origin of the gods, and their forms of the cult, as it had developed in the principal and powerful centre from
the Lower Istru, on the territory of the holy Hyperboreans, emigrated southwards from the Carpathians, at the same time with the Pelasgian tribes.
The colossal figure from the Carpathians of Dacia, which exudes a sovereign expression of dignity and an immense power, could represent only the great
national god of the Pelasgian tribes, to whom the most imposing heights of the mountains were everywhere consecrated.
About a similar huge figure, sculpted in a rock near Antiochia, the Greek writer Ioannis Malalae tells the following in his Chronography (Bonnae, 1831
p. 205): “During the reign of Antiochus Epiphanus, the king of Syria, being an epidemic in Antiochia and many people dieing, a certain Leios, a man
who was learned in religious mysteries, ordered them to sculpt a rock in the mountain which dominated the city. This was a gigantic head encircled
with a crown, facing the city and that valley. He then wrote something on the head and he put and end this way to the epidemic. The Antiochians call
to this day this head Charonion”.
This Charonion represented in reality Zeus charaios (Preller, Gr. Myth.I. 77), meaning the “Head of God”, as the high divinity of the sky and
earth was presented and worshipped by the Beotians.
So far we’ve considered this colossus from the Carpathians of Dacia only from the point of view of the religious ideas of prehistoric times. We have
now to examine this simulacrum from the point of view of its symbolic characters and its special history.
This majestic figure which dominates even today the most important height of the Carpathians, has two remarkable particularities, which prove that
this simulacrum had been considered in the Homeric antiquity the most sacred and ancient image of the supreme divinity.
One of these distinctive particularities of the colossus on Omul, is his wide face.
Homer, in one of his hymns, calls the supreme god of the physical and moral world of his times, the “God most good, most great, and with a wide
face” (Zana ariston megiston euruopa). These are the most ancient, most ritual epithets, with which the powerful divinity of the Pelasgian world was
[2. The authors of antiquity were doubtful about the true meaning of the epithet euruopa, attributed to the great ante-Homeric God, and in modern
literature we still cannot find a satisfying explanation.
Some authors derive this epithet from oph (opos) = phona, voice, sound, translating Zeus euruopa with late-sonans. Others on the contrary, accept that
the radical of opa is reduced to oph (opos), eye, face, but have interpreted incorrectly this epithet, some with latioculus, latum habens oculum
(Stephanus Thes. I. gr), others with late-videns, late-cernens. According to the ideas of antique theology though, by the expression euruopa was meant
the shape of the divine figure, the wide face, extremely imposing of Jove. So with Homer, Juno, addressing Apollo and Iris (Iliad, XV.146), tells them
“Jove orders you to come as fast as you can on mount Ida and after you arrived there, to look at his face”. With Eschyl (Suppl. V.1059), Jove also
has an immense face. Finally we have to add that Homer uses the adjective euru almost everywhere, and only in strict material sense, as for example
wide streets, wide forehead, wide river bed, wide space, etc.].
Achilles, addressing a prayer to Zeus (Dodonaios) Pelasgichos on Troy’s plain, calls him at the same time the Pelasgian God with the wide face and
who dwells far away (Homer, Iliad, V. v. 233 – 241).
This “God with the wide face” gave to king Tros of Troy, as Homer tells us, some horses of the most excellent race, called “immortal horses”
by some authors (Iliad, V. v. 265-267).
During the primitive times of history, the horses most renowned for their shape, symmetry and speed, were in the north of Thrace. Pegasus, the divine
winged horse, was born, according to legends, near the sources (meaning cataracts) of the river Oceanos or Istru (Hesiod, Theog.v.293) .
[3. The ancients have placed also in the northern hemisphere the Pegasus constellation; As it is known, the Scythians were in antiquity the most
famous riders; The hunting horse of Adrian was called Borysthenes (Dio Cassius, lib. LXIX. 10); And the race of horses from Moldova was renowned up to
the 18th century for their body, agility and resistance (Cantemir, Descriptio Moldaviae, p.32)].
The following words of Homer are especially memorable, as they refer to Zeus euruopa:
“Thetis (Achilles’ mother), departing in early morning, climbed on the great Uranos, and on Olympos, and here she found the son of wide-faced
Saturn, sitting separately from the other gods, on the highest point of Olympos, which has many peaks” (Iliad, I. v. 497-499) .
[4. It is to be noted that Homer calls here the highest peak of Olympus mountain, on which Jove was seated, choruna, meaning top, head. Homer also
calls Choruna the peak of Mount Ida, from where Jove followed the Trojan war (Iliad, XIV. 157). And the same name is used by Hesiod (Theog. v. 62) for
the highest point of Olympus].
This is an important text for the history of those obscure times. And here megas Ouranos, which was in close proximity of Olympos, expresses only the
notion of mountain (Aristotle, De mundo, c.6), but not the infinite space above the earth.
This megas Ouranos, which Thetis climbs first, on her way to Olympus, is from the point of view of rhapsodic geography, identical with Caraiman, the
imposing mountain of Dacia, consecrated to Cerus manus, which appears personified in Romanian legends under the name of Caraiman, the creator of
“the first people”, and in Romanian folk incantations, as Domn (TN – ruler) of lightning and thunderbolts, and the great sovereign of the world
[5. Both with Homer (Iliad, I. 197) and Hesiod (Theog. v. 689-694), Ouranos and ‘Olympos appear as two heights of the same mountain chain. In the
battle with the Titans, Jove throws his lightning from Uranos and Olympos at the same time. Because of this lightning, writes Hesiod, the vast forest
was set alight all around. Finally, both with Homer and Hesiod, Olympos was a mountain in the northern region, usually covered in snow].
On a coin from the time of Antoninus Pius, DACIA, as divinity, is shown holding in her right hand a group of mountains (Eckhel, Doctrina numorum, Vol.
VII. 5), which without doubt had a religious-historical importance, they were the holy mountains of Dacia, ieron oros of Strabo. And the poet
P.Papinius Statius (Opera quae extant, Lipsiae, 1857), who lived for a long time at the court of Domitian, calls often Dacia only as verticem and
In Homer’s Iliad, the dwellings of the great God are on a physical terrestrial height. Only the palace of Zeus is on majestic Olympos, the other
gods dwell on the valleys of Olympos (Iliad, XI. 77), and on Uranos (Iliad, I. 195; VIII. 365; XX. 299; XXI. 267; Odyss. IV. 378. 439). But the
assemblies of the gods take place on Olympos, where Jove convokes them especially for this purpose (Iliad, VIII. 3; XX. 4; Odyss. I. 27; Hesiod,
Theog. v. 391).
Similarly, in Hesiod’s Theogony (v.119), Zeus euruopa is the god whose residence is on the sacred Olympos of Uranic times, from the most remote
“corner” of the earth (Ibid.v.119), or from the “black country” (Ibid.v.69), near the Ocean (or Istru) with its deep whirlpools (Ibid, v.514,
884; Homer, Iliad, XIV, v.201). Zeus euruopa is the god of justice (Hesiod, Opera et Dies, v.229 seqq, 281), he distributes his bounty to the honest
and just men, gives prosperity to the cities, abundance to the earth, acorn to the oaks, increases the bees, blesses the sheep flocks, makes the women
give birth to children like their parents, and makes the people enjoy in festivities the fruits of their labor, he avenges the wrongdoings, and burns
with his lightning the insolents and malefactors (Hesiod, Theogony. v. 514).
Another very apparent particularity presented by the archaic type of the great God of Dacia, belongs to the antique symbolism.
On the calm and intelligent forehead of this god, can be seen the natural or artificial traces which represent a split in the head, on the upper part
of the skull.
Similar symbolic signs were shown also on the sacred image of the supreme divinity in ante-Homeric theogony.
According to the old Pelasgo-Hellenic legends, Minerva (from the root men, mens, mind) was born from the head of Jove. The poet Pindar (Olymp. VII. v.
35-38) transmitted this legend, saying that Vulcan had split with his copper hatchet Jove’s head (Zeus), from which Minerva had emerged with such
clamor, that the sky and earth were terrified, or, as Homer says (Hymn. in Minervam), the earth echoed and the Pontos clouded its purple waves.
During the first times of history, religious beliefs were clothed in symbolism, and all the sacred images of antiquity were characterized by an
infinite variety of symbolic attributes.
We ask now, can it be that the origin of this allegorical legend about Minerva’s birth from Zeus’ head was that figure, so archaic, so worshipped,
and so unique in its way?
We think yes! Homer places the origin of all the gods, known and worshipped in Greek lands, in the northern parts of Thrace, at Istru, at ‘Ocheanos
The simulacrum of Zeus euruopa from the great Gate of the Carpathians, presents another important characteristic symbol.
Near the right shoulder of the God, the figure of a gigantic shield appears in very regular and well preserved forms. This shield is one of the most
principal and archaic attributes of the supreme divinity of the heroic times.
In the oldest monuments of Greek literature, the great God of the Pelasgian world has also the epithet of aigiochos, meaning “the one who holds the
shield” (Homer, Iliad, II. v. 375; V. v. 733; Hesiod, Theog. v. 11, 13, 25, 735, 920; Opera et Dies, v. 483, Fragm. 124).
Homer’s Iliad describes this shield as priceless, which the times could not age, and which will never disappear. From it hung one hundred tassels of
gold, very finely woven, each of it valuing one hundred oxen (II. v. 226 seqq). This shield of the powerful God was surrounded all around by religious
terrors. On it were represented the “Quarrel”, the “Bravery”, the “Terrible war tumult” and the Gorgon’s head, the sinister and terrible
monster (Ibid, V.738 seqq). This shield was made and given to Jove by Vulcan (Ibid, XV, v. 308). But, as results from another place in the Iliad, the
shield of great Zeus was of stone or of rock (Ibid, XVII. V. 593-594. With Homer, the noun marmaros had only the simple meaning of stone, rock, only
later this word came to signify the calcareous, hard and shiny type of the marble), and to this particularity seem to refer Homer’s words, that time
could not age it and it will never disappear.
This was the miraculous shield which inspired on one side the courage in battle, on the other, a martial terror, so that it gave victory to all those
in whose camp it was.
According to ancient traditions, Jove first appeared in battle with this shield during the wars with the Titans and the Gigants (TN- I use this term,
as the Giants are often confused with the Titans).
In the memorable war fought by the Acheans (Greeks) with the Trojans, Jove sent Apollo to help the Trojans, and lent him this shield, telling him to
shake it on the war theatre, so that the terrified Acheans will retire to their ships (Homer, Iliad, XI. v. 229). But Minerva, in collusion with Juno,
took this shield without Jove’s knowledge, ran with it to the Greeks’ camp and urged them to war against the Trojans (Ibid, II. v. 447).
Jove’s shield, as results from Homer (Ibid, V. v.738), was worn on the shoulders, and it appears figured in the same way on the great simulacrum
from the Carpathians of Dacia.
Religious beliefs were tightly connected to certain legendary simulacra until late in historical times, simulacra to which the people attributed in
its imagination, a supernatural power.
When Homer and Hesiod describe the majestic figure of Zeus euruopa aigiochos etc, they do not talk about an abstract divine power, but about a real
image, a simulacrum consecrated by an ancient religion. (Achilles was doing the same thing, when addressing his prayers to Jove from Dodona).
Minerva, Homer tells us (Hymn in MInerv; Iliad, I. 202; Hesiod, Theog. v. 920, 924), was born from the head of Zeus aigiochos, and these words refer
incontestably to the principal simulacrum of ante-Hellenic religion, to the sacred figure, so expressive from all the points of view, of Zeus
aigiochos from the ancient Olympos of theogony, usually covered in snow, from north of the Lower Istru.
We find the same tradition also in Roman theology.
From the important extracts from the sacred books of Roman paganism, transmitted to us by Cicero, Minerva, the goddess revered by the Pelasgo-Greek
world, was born from Jove and Coryphe, the daughter of the Ocean (De nat. Deor. Lib. III. 23).
‘Ocheanos potamos, the father of all ante-Hellenic divinities in antique theogonies, is the “holy” Istru, which the ancients considered at the
same time as “the greatest river” of the world; and Homer calls Coryphe the highest peak of ancient Olympos (Iliad, I. v. 499), while for Pindar
Coryphe is Jove’s head itself, from which Minerva emerged (Olymp. VII. 36).
We’ve established therefore from legends, as well as from the characteristics presented by the important simulacrum reproduced above, that Minerva
was born from the head of Zeus aigiochos, on the sacred territory of the ancient religion, north of Thrace, in the region of the Istru. Science was
Minerva’s attribute, and the traditions place her birth in the Carpathians of Dacia, a circumstance also confirmed by Prometheus’ legend, about
which we shall talk later.
The shield (aegis) of great Zeus from the north of the Istru, had at the same time an extremely important role in the state life of the Pelasgians.
It appears as the symbol of their nation’s existence and political independence.
In the memorable war on the shores of Hellespont, this shield appears either in the Trojans’ lines, or in the Acheans’ camp, according to the
side protected by different divinities, the empire of Priam, or the coalition of the Acheans.
The memory of this sacred shield of the great God had been preserved by the Pelasgian tribes that had migrated to Italy, until the times of Numa.
King Numa, the first king to organize the public cult of the Romans, wanted, because of traditional reasons which today we can not know anymore, that
the new state founded on the shores of the Tiber should possess a protective shield of the great God.
According to what the legends tell us, he, following the counsel of his wife Egeria, asked the all powerful God, saevus Jupiter (or Sabazius Jupiter;
Sebazius; Sabadius, Sebadius; Sabus; Savus augustus – according to V. Maxim; Macrobius, Silius Italicus), the Lord of thunder and lightning, to come
down from his high residence to Rome, and tell him by what sort of rites and ceremonies will the Romans be able to abate his divine anger in the
future. The great national god listened to his prayer and descended from his height to Rome, in the holy grove near Aventin. The peaks of this
mountain shook and the earth sank under the God’s weight.
Here, the great divinity of the Pelasgians told Numa the ritual sacrifices through which his people could, in times of need, abate or appease the
divine anger, and promised at the same time that the next day he will give him a sure sign for the safety of the Roman state. And the next day, when
the sun appeared on the horizon in all its glory, and when Numa, at the front of his people had lifted his hands in prayer to the supreme divinity, to
send him the promised gift, it was suddenly seen how the sky opened and a shield fell slowly through the air. Numa lifted the shield and brought
sacrifices of thanks to the God. Then, remembering that the fate of the Roman empire is connected to this shield, which he called ancile, he disposed
to have a number of similar shields made, so that the wicked men and enemies could not steal the divine shield, and he gave the care of these holy
things to the college of priests called Salii (Ovid, Fast, III. v. 275 seqq;, Dionysos Halikar. Lib. II. c. 71).
As results from this religious tradition, the new Pelasgian state had felt a definite need to put itself under the protective shield of the great
national divinity, and Numa, a man learned in all the divine and human sciences (Livy, lib. 1. c. 18), knew how to procure for his people such a holy
guaranty, given by the powerful god of the Pelasgian nation himself.
From a historical point of view, the origin of this belief was in the lands of the Lower Istru .
[6. The Roman ancile had, according to Varro (L. L. VII. 43), the shape of the Thracian shields, and on a bronze coin of the emperor Antonius Pius,
they have the shape of an oval disc].
In Latium, the most antique religious traditions had been preserved by the inhabitants of Aricia. This Pelasgian tribe of the Aricians, famous for
their piety, had their dwellings, before entering Italy, near the Meotic Lake, and later on the territory of Dacia, close to the mouths of the Danube,
where their ethnic traces still appear during historical times under the name of Arrechi .
[7. According to Strabo (V. 3. 12), the temple of Diana of Aricia had its origin connected to Diana Taurica, and “barbarian” and “Scythian”
religious institutions truly existed there.
Strabo mentions (XI. 2. 11) the ‘Arrechoi among the populations settled near the Meotic lake, and Pliny (VI. 7. 1) the Arrechi.
The northern arm or mouth of the Danube appears with Apollonius Rhodius under the name of ‘Arechos, and in some codices of Ptolemy, under the name
of ‘Inariachion (Ed.Didot. I. p. 460). Similarly, Virgil calls the territory of the Arimi, Inarime (Aen. IX. 716), “in” being in both cases just
a simple preposition of the Pelasgo-Getic dialect from the Lower Danube ].
The nymph Egeria, who, according to what traditions tell, was the wife and inspiration of Numa in his entire work of religious organization, was from
Aricia. The legends attribute especially to her the idea of inviting the great Pelasgian God to Rome, and the mystery with his protective shield. We
witness here just a religious reminiscence from the ancient country of the Pelasgian tribes from the Lower Danube.
According to Herodotus, Zalmoxis, the great God of the Getae, was called by some Gebeleizis (Herodotus, lib. XCIV). This form of this name is without
any doubt altered. Herodotus did not know well the northern dialect of the Pelasgians, as can be deduced from different Scythian words which he
transmitted to us erroneously.
The oldest images of the supreme divinity showed usually only his head.
In some lands of Greece, great Zeus was also worshipped under the name of chephale, head (Pauly, Real-Encyclopadie, p.596; Preller, Gr. Myth. I. 99).
The Boetians gave him also the epithet charaios, from chara, head (Preller, Gr. Myth. I. p.77). In Italy, Jupiter Latiaris was also called Latiale
caput (Lucanis, Phars. I. 535-536). And in Rome, at the time of the great funeral repasts, the images of the gods, called capita deorum (TN – head =
cap), which represented only the heads or busts of the gods, were placed on lecterns (Preller-Jordan, R. M. I. 149).
The Trojans also showed the image of Jupiter fulgurator or Jupiter avus, only by the figure of his head, as attests the terracotta specimen found by
Schliemann in his dig at Troy (Ilios p.806).
Gebeleizis is only a secondary name of Zalmoxis, and definitely a composed word.
The last part corresponds to Zes = Zeus and very probably Gebeleizis expresses only the same idea as chephale-Zis = chiphale-Dis or chephale-Dios,
meaning the “Head of God”, as it was shown by the enormous simulacrum from the south-eastern arch of the Carpathians.
The titanic figure of Zeus aristos megistos euruopa, aigiochos, from the Omul mountain, was not an abstract personification of the divinity.
This simulacrum represented in fact the face of a famous prehistoric personality, Saturn, the God and idealized ruler of the peoples of Pelasgian
After Caelus or Uranos, Saturn was the great divinity worshipped on the territory of Dacia, until the time when the Roman armies introduced here the
official religion of the empire.
The age of this monument harks back to the great times of the ethnic and political development of the Pelasgians, when fate had not yet started to
turn sour for the Eastern Pelasgians, and when a sizable part of the Latin tribes had not yet migrated to Italy. By its colossal size, this simulacrum
expresses also how happy and how glorious were those times, and how vast was the secular power of that person, whose figure was eternized on that rock
on the Omul mountain.