Thats right, true disbelievers! It seems that you too have a superpower - the power of disbelief! Equal and opposite to the power of belief. Together,
the power of belief and the power of disbelief comprise the sheep-goat effect
. This is an effect that shows up in parapsychology experiments
when you have test subjects that are believers and subjects that are disbelievers and you compare their scoring patterns. They call the believers
sheep and the disbelievers goats.
"The sheep got more right than you would expect by chance guessing, they were occasionally using ESP. The goats, on the other hand, got
significantly fewer right than you would expect by chance. Think of it this way. If you were asked to guess red or black with ordinary playing cards,
no feedback until you'd done the whole deck, you would average about 50% correct by chance. If you got 100% correct, you don't need statistics to
know that would be astounding. But if you got 0%? Just as astounding!
The sheep thought they could do it, they got "good" scores, they were happy. The goats knew there was no ESP, nothing to get, they got poor scores,
they were happy, that "proved" their belief. These were not people who were sophisticated enough about statistics to know that scoring below chance
could be significant…
Many other experimenters replicated this effect over the years.
The only way I've ever been able to understand it is to think that the goats occasionally used ESP, but on an unconscious level, to know what the
next card was and then their unconscious, acting in the service of their conscious belief system, influenced them to call anything but the correct
one. The goats used a "miracle" to support their belief that there were no such things as miracles….
Talk about living in samsara, in a state of illusion!" Charles Tart
So, it could be that disbelievers have the power to unknowingly use psychic ability to maintain their flawed belief that there is no such thing as
psychic ability! Amazing! The power of disbelievers vs the power of believers produces a sort of transpersonal stalemate...which is part of the reason
why the paranormal is so elusive.
Here are a couple of parapsychology papers for your consideration.
Effect of Belief on Psi Performance in a Card Guessing Task
Subjects were asked to carry out a clairvoyance task as a study of the effect of belief and its modulation on psi performance. The task was to guess
hidden symbols on Zener cards. Subjects stated whether they believed in the existence of psi, after which the belief was either supported or
contradicted by written and verbal arguments. After this, the subjects carried out the clairvoyance task. A total of 12 subjects were each asked to
guess the content of 100 hidden Zener cards. The p-value for believers given pro-psi arguments was 0.028 (two-tailed), which is substantially
different (p = 0.039) and better than the values for the nonbelievers and believers who were given anti-psi arguments. This supports the concept that
successful psi performance results from belief in psi, and not the reverse.
It can help explain why many experiments have not shown repeatable results, where differences between subjects rather than experimental conditions
influence the results.
If subject belief is required for significant psi-task success, then it could explain why certain people are such deeply rooted believers or
CONSISTENT MISSING: A TYPE OF INFORMATION-PROCESSING ERROR IN ESP
Consistent missing (CM), defined as the tendency of the subject in an ESP test to mistake particular symbols for certain other symbols, has been
discussed as a type of information-processing error in ESP and also as a possible source of psi-missing. The present paper surveys the relevant
literature and summarizes (1) the extent of occurrence of CM, (2) the relationship between scoring rate and CM, and (3) the available evidence
concerning the factors that lead to CM.
Six of the 11 subjects for whom CM analyses have been carried out showed significant CM effects in all or parts of their data. The presence of CM was
not consistently related to the direct-hit scoring rate; and in the two sets of psi-missing data that are available, CM did not appear to be the
dominant factor in the production of the negative scoring. The factors that apparently sometimes lead to CM confusions include the similarities of
meaning and associations between targets as well as the visual resemblances.
Further work should pay particular attention to the subjects' reports about the nature of their ESP impressions in order to investigate the extent to
which CM is determined by the specific mechanisms used to mediate ESP information into consciousness.
It should also be kept in mind that CM could occur when there is motivation for low scores. Thus, CM could be a mechanism for the production of
psi-missing. From a more general point of view, CM could result from a situation in which, given that the correct target is to be avoided because of
motivational factors, the calls are systematically associated with particular alternative targets rather than uniformly distributed over all the other
targets. Thus, the presence of CM in psi-missing data does not disqualify the possible role of motivation. Also, under these conditions, CM would not
necessarily reflect any particular similarity or "confusion" between targets.
Favorable Psychological Factors: An Organizational Schema
In addressing psi-conducive psychological conditions, I will make use of an organizational schema proposed by Allan Combs (1996). Combs’ schema
includes three hierarchical levels: There are states of mind (such as sadness, joy, depression, enthusiasm, doubt, determination, and other moods and
dispositions) that are relatively transient, and their defining content is important and narrow. These are supported by a second level: states of
These consciousness states are larger and consist of unique configurations of sets of processes of thought, imagery, feelings, memories, world
perceptions, and self-perceptions. Examples include the well-recognized ordinary and altered states that have been discussed extensively by Charles
Tart (1969, 1975), Stanislav Grof (1975, 1985, 1988; Grof & Bennett, 1992), and others—ordinary waking consciousness, nondream sleep, dream sleep,
meditative states, shamanic trances, hypnosis, and so on. Combs likens these states of consciousness to the so-called attractors of chaos theory. The
third, and broadest, level is that of structures of consciousness. These are “entire overarching regimes that determine how the world is experienced
and understood” (Combs, 1996, p. 263).
These are the more global forms of consciousness—the archaic, magical, mythical, mental, and integral patterns of thinking—identified by Jean
Gebser (1949/1986). In these different structures of consciousness—which, according to Gebser, developed in successive historical periods, but which
continue to be active in us, today, in various ways and at various times—different mental processes are possible, impossible, and differently
valued. These five consciousness structures are more inclusive and more enduring than are states of consciousness and states of mind, and they may be
likened to worldviews or mindsets (or even paradigms of thought).
Thanks for reading.