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Water's unique properties:
> The solid form floats on the liquid form. This property also explains why water pipes will burst when they freeze - something opposite of nearly every other simple substance. Mercury thermometers, for instance, do not explode when the temperature drops below the freezing point of mercury.
> The temperatures at which water boils and freezes are both higher than other molecules of similar size.
> Water has a large heat capacity; it can take in a lot of heat without its temperature increasing very much. This makes it an especially good coolant for a car radiator, and it's the main reason temperatures are moderate for coastal communities - as the ocean is slow to cool down or warm up.
> The high surface tension of water - its tendency to fight being pulled apart - explains why it forms droplets and why it climbs up the sides of a straw. It may also play a part in how the water strider walks on water.
1. Set in the desert of Dubai, the Tiger Woods Golf Course uses 4 million gallons of water every day to maintain its lush appearance.
2. Since 1950, water usage in the United States has risen 127 percent.
3. Even though each person only requires 48 liters of water on a daily basis, individuals in the United States use an average of 500 liters, those in Canada an average of 300 liters and those in England an average of 200 liters.
4. Of all the water that enters each household, about 95% of it ends up down the drain.
5. With access to just 5 liters of water each day, more than a billion people in water poor regions around the globe survive on the same amount used to flush a toilet or take a 5-minute shower.
6. If you shorten your showers by just a single minute, you can save approximately 700 gallons of water in a month.
7. Letting the tap run when you brush your teeth wastes up to 4 gallons of water every time.
8. It takes an average of 300 gallons to water your lawn. During the summer, this can account for almost half of your water usage.
9. Every time you throw your clothes in the washer, you use about 50 gallons of water.
10. Another wasteful desert endeavor, the proposed Waveyards water park in Mesa, Arizona will require up to 100 million gallons of groundwater every year in an area that receives a mere 8 inches of rainfall in that time.
Picturing water as a liquid that can form two types of structure, one tetrahedral and the other disordered, could explain many of its unusual properties. Here are 10 of them.
Water is most dense at 4 °C
EXPLANATION: Heating reduces the number of ordered, tetrahedral structures in favour of a more disordered arrangement in which molecules are more densely packed. However, the heat also agitates the molecules in the disordered regions, causing them to move further apart. Above 4 °C, this effect takes precedence, making the water less dense
Water has an exceptionally high specific heat capacity: it takes a lot of heat energy to raise water's temperature by a given amount
EXPLANATION: Much of the extra heat energy is used to convert more molecules from the tetrahedral structures to the disordered structures, rather than into increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules, and hence the temperature.
Specific heat capacity is at a minimum at 35 °C but increases as the temperature falls or rises, whereas the heat capacity of most other liquids rises continuously with temperature.
EXPLANATION: Between 0 and 35 °C, increasing the temperature steadily removes regions of ordered, tetrahedral structure, reducing water's ability to absorb heat. Above 35 °C, so few of the tetrahedral regions are left that water behaves like a regular liquid.
Water's compressibility drops with increasing temperature until it reaches a minimum at 46 °C, whereas in most liquids, the compressibility rises continuously with temperature
EXPLANATION: As the temperature rises, the dense, disordered regions become more prevalent, and these are more difficult to compress. However, rising temperature also forces molecules within these regions further apart and hence makes them more compressible. This effect takes precedence beyond 46 °C.
Water is particularly difficult to compress
EXPLANATION: The strong attraction between water molecules keeps them more closely packed than the molecules of many other liquids.
This effect is particularly marked when the higher-density disordered structure dominates
The speed of sound in water increases with temperature up to 74 °C, after which it starts to fall again
EXPLANATION: This is the result of the interplay between water's unusual density and compressibility profiles, which directly stem from the changing balance between the two types of structure.
Water molecules diffuse more easily, not less easily, at higher pressures
EXPLANATION: High pressure converts more molecules to the disordered structure, in which they are more mobile.
Unlike many liquids, water becomes less viscous, not more viscous, at higher pressures
EXPLANATION: Molecules are freer to move when in the disordered structures, which are favoured at higher pressures, than when they are in the ordered, tetrahedral structure.
Increasing the pressure increases the amount by which water expands on heating
EXPLANATION: Rising temperature causes disordered regions to expand more rapidly than ordered, tetrahedral ones, and high pressure favours fluctuations to the disordered regions.
Properties such as viscosity, boiling point and melting point are significantly different in "heavy" water - made from the heavier hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium - compared with their equivalents in normal water.
EXPLANATION: The heavier isotopes change the quantum mechanical properties of water molecules, altering the balance of the disordered and tetrahedral regions.
Originally posted by Onboard2
Yes! A life force.