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The biguanide metformin, which is widely prescribed for the treatment of type II diabetes, might be a good candidate for lung cancer chemoprevention because it activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which can inhibit the mTOR pathway.
Metformin reduced lung tumor burden by up to 53% at steady-state plasma concentrations that are achievable in humans. mTOR was inhibited in lung tumors but only modestly
These studies show that metformin prevents tobacco carcinogen–induced lung tumorigenesis and support clinical testing of metformin as a chemopreventive agent.
This old drug could well perform a new trick for cancer prevention -- and even treatment -- Michael Pollak, MD, of McGill University in Montreal, told attendees at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes meeting. "If someone had just synthesized metformin in a cancer lab it would be considered a very important scientific development in the context of oncology," he remarked to reporters at an EASD press conference.
We discovered actually that there was a lot of common ground in the way that stressed cells respond to metabolic signals and stress signals providing much more of a bridge than we realized between metabolism and cancer," he said. This "caught everyone by surprise," Gale noted. However, that was only because the link between type 2 diabetes and cancer had been mostly forgotten, according to Jeff M. Holly, PhD, also of the University of Bristol.
The altered metabolism required by all tumors was a main thrust of research after Louis Pasteur first recognized this fact in the 1860s, Holly pointed out at the press conference.
The oncology field may be gearing up for trials using metformin as a treatment for nondiabetics with cancer, but it's controversial whether levels of the drug would be high enough in the target tumor area to produce an effect, Pollak added. Metformin lowers blood glucose levels through action in the liver -- which in turn makes insulin levels fall. Some tumors remain dependent on endogenous insulin despite insulin resistance in the patient. Not all diabetes treatments have the same effect, since most treatments lower glucose levels by increasing insulin -- just what a tumor that thrives in an insulin-rich environment needs to grow.
Status: Patent expired in September 2000.
The patent on Bristol-Myers Squibb's diabetic drug Glucophage, which brought in sales of $1.7 billion, expired in 2000 and generics are expected to soon be on the market.
The patent on BMS’s Glucophage, which had sales over $2 billion in 2001, expired in January of 2002. One month later, more than 85% of that drug’s market share had been taken by generic alternatives.
A total of 1,001 cases of PCa and 942 controls were available for analysis. In Caucasian men, metformin use was more common in controls than in cases (4.7 vs. 2.8%, p = 0.04), resulting in a 44% risk reduction for [Prostate Cancer] (adjusted OR = 0.56; 95% CI 0.32–1.00).
"Combining metformin with bicalutamide significantly reduces prostate cancer cell colony formation rates more effectively than either drug in monotherapy," said Vasundara Venkateswaran, PhD, assistant professor of surgery at the University of Toronto............"this combination regimen may potentially improve prostate cancer specific survival through a direct anti-proliferation mechanism."..............She suggested that metformin use, in addition to impacting prostate cancer growth, "may improve overall survival rates by reducing the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that accompanies hormone-induced metabolic syndrome.".
On October 2, 2003, Philadelphia Assistant U.S. Attorney Virginia Gibson delivered a speech to the Pharmaceutical Compliance Forum noting the importance of the recent “Neurontin” decisions and signaling the government’s new willingness to use the False Claims Act to restrict or even eliminate a manufacturer’s ability to promote the off-label uses of its product.
An off-label drug is not necessarily dangerous. In fact, for many diseases, it is the best or even the only course of treatment available. Pharmaceutical manufacturers, however, with certain minor exceptions, are not permitted to encourage off-label use of their product.
Originally posted by Lebowski achiever
reply to post by Pseudonaut
Yes that is great info. Thanks. I am just wondering if there is a distinction between European and World patents?
The company has lobbied against efforts to add a prescription drug benefit to Medicare, to expand generic drug use, and to allow importation of cheaper pharmaceuticals from Canada.