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How much faith can be put in the theories concerning the composition and density of rocks at different depths? The only place where the accuracy of scientific models can be tested directly is in the uppermost few kilometres of the crust. Although oil companies have drilled as deep as 8 km on land, they drill in sedimentary basins. The igneous and metamorphic basement, which averages 40 km thick and makes up most of the continental crust, has rarely been sampled deeper than 2 or 3 km. The deepest borehole drilled for scientific purposes is located on the Kola Peninsula near Murmansk, Russia, in the northwestern part of the Baltic Shield. The drilling of the main borehole began in 1970, and a final depth of 12,262 metres was reached in 1994. The drilling of this and other deep and superdeep wells has produced one surprise after another, and the findings have been extremely embarrassing for earth scientists . One scientist commented: 'Every time we drill a hole we find the unexpected. That's exciting, but disturbing.' And a science reporter remarked: 'Kola revealed how far from truth scientific theory can roam.'
It is generally assumed that temperature increases with depth, reaching 1000°C at a depth of about 80 km, 4800°C at the core-mantle boundary, and 6900°C at the earth's centre. It is certainly true that mine shafts and oil drilling operations have indicated significant increases of temperature with depth. Indeed, superdeep drilling has shown that temperature increases with depth far more rapidly than predicted. In the Kola borehole, the temperature at 10-km depth was 180°C rather than the expected 100°C. Measurements revealed significant vertical variations in temperature gradient and heat-flux density along the borehole. Overall, the rate of temperature increase rose from 11° to 24°/km down to a depth of nearly 7 km, and then started to decline. Geologists recognize that the rate of temperature increase must drop off sharply at a certain depth as otherwise the mantle would be molten below about 100 km (even at the enormous pressures assumed to exist there), whereas seismic evidence indicates that it is solid.
The Russian researchers were also surprised at how quickly the temperatures rose as the borehole deepened, which is the factor that ultimately halted the project’s progress. Despite the scientists’ efforts to combat the heat by refrigerating the drilling mud before pumping it down, at twelve kilometers the drill began to approach its maximum heat tolerance. At that depth researchers had estimated that they would encounter rocks at 100°C (212°F), but the actual temperature was about 180°C (356°F)– much higher than anticipated. At that level of heat and pressure, the rocks began to act more like a plastic than a solid, and the hole had a tendency to flow closed whenever the drill bit was pulled out for replacement. Forward progress became impossible without some technological breakthroughs and major renovations of the equipment on hand, so drilling stopped on the SG-3 branch. If the hole had reached the initial goal of 15,000 meters, temperatures would have reached a projected 300°C (572°F).
Do you know that the earth is comprised of over 75 percent water? H20 = Hydrogen and Oxygen.
The Ultimate "Did You Know That ... Never Mind"
Here is a list of the wide range of evidence which we will now present to the un- believing outer earth visitors who want to know why they have never heard about the Hollow Earth before, and feel that they have been somewhat left out.
* All planets are spheres, not only the Earth: the Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, the Sun itself
* Standard planetary formation theories: how were they formed, what made them spin, and still does: completely woowoo
* A massive planetary body with an incandescent and progressively cooling core would crack into pieces while cooling and shrinking
* Gaseous planetary bodies like the sun and the large planets of our solar system can not generate a magnetic field; but they all have one
* All the solar system's outer planets emit more energy than they receive from the sun
* A spinning planetary body in formation has zero gravity in its center, so mass does accumulate where gravitational and centrifugal forces are balanced within the area of the spinning matter, and that form would be a sphere with openings at the top and bottom, like a hurricane of matter in space - not as a solid body with a solid center (the center has zero gravity)
* If planets were formed from cosmic dust which started to condense into a body like Earth, then the angular momentum would still continue to increase, which it doesn't - the earth's spin is steady, not slowing down or speeding up
* Larger planets with more mass should spin more slowly than smaller planets with less mass - but they don't: the largest, Jupiter, spins a lot faster (once every 10 hours) than Mercury, which is just a tiny fraction the size of Jupiter and needs 58 Earth days for one spin around its axis
* Both Earth and Moon ring hollow for hours after struck with meteorites, as measured by seismic stations on Earth and on the Moon
* Earthquakes do not occur deeper than 450 miles, but down there, the supposedly molten magma would not create and release friction via earthquakes - a viscous or molten mass equalizes tension, it does not accumulate tension because it is flexible
* Gravity experiments in mine shafts show that the balls pointing to the center of gravity point away from the center of the Earth, instead of towards it, as measured by the distance at the top and bottom of two lead balls hanging from very long wires into a mine shaft
* ... Odd ..." would inspector Clouseau say
Observations at the Earth's poles: welcome to Mr. Woo's pole anomalies
* The temperature, as one gets past a certain latitude, increases as one approaches the poles, which is not supposed to happen; arctic (and in less cases, antarctic) explorers have reported in their ship's logs to have taken off their climate gear (this was before Goretex)
* Floating flora and fauna near the northern polar region's ocean: seeds, flowers and trees are found at latitudes where none should be, and they are often very fresh, not decomposed from many months of floating in the ocean currents that might have brought them from far away
* Spiders, bees, mosquitos, moths and flies were found once past the cold and icy region below the north pole; northern Greenland is the mosquito capital of the world
* Many bird species in the northern hemisphere migrate north - before winter; birds in the southern hemisphere migrate south in their winter, too - if the poles are the coldest regions, it makes no sense, but flocks of millions of birds like the auk have been observed doing this, and they must have a very good reason
* Presence of seal, auk, goose, seagull, duck, rabbit, wolf, fox, bear and other large animals at extreme northern latitudes (the exploration of Antarctica is much more scarce compared to Arctic explorers)
* The origin of icebergs: around the north pole, they are made of frozen sweetwater - not frozen saltwater. There is little if any precipitation of rain or snow (sweetwater) in the polar regions. Saltwater freezes to sea ice at low enough temperatures. There is no supply of sweetwater to explain the existence of icebergs which are hundreds of feet high, up to hundreds of miles long and dozens of miles wide
* Icebergs around the north pole are colored by red pollen of an unknown plant, as well as dust - a lot of it; including earth material on top of them
* Massive wave-like or tidal movements in the arctic polar region have been witnessed by many explorers, waves which cracked and moved the ice floes around the explorer's ships in a very, very major way that had their hair stand on end
* Floating and deposited driftwood (including exotic species) is extremely abundant and sometimes stacked 15 feet/5m high along the coasts in the polar region of Spitzbergen and Greenland, up to 86 degrees latitude north
* Mammoth, elephant, woolly rhinoceros, hippopotamus, lion and hyena have been found in the ice from the north pole that is also deposited on the coasts of Siberia; entire forests of mammoth ivory have been found there
* The stomach content of (un)frozen mammoth has been found to contain tropical (undigested) plants that do not occur anywhere in the northen polar region; supposedly, the last time the mammoths were clomping around was during the last Ice Age (not the Pixar animation films 1, 2 or 3), but many were found with their (un)frozen meat good enough to give it to the sled dogs in Siberia for dinner (or late lunch) [Note from the editor: If these mammoths came out of Inner Earth via the huge freshwater rivers that flow outwards and freeze as they pass the northern polar opening, then the theory of a massive crustal shift of the Earth which supposedly transported mammoths who had been peacefully chomping on tropical plants way up north, in two days, causing them to insta-freeze as a result of a polar reversal, has one argument less; see Charles Hapgood, Maurice Cotterell, Patrick Geryl, Clif High and others]
Most earth scientists believe that, as well as having a high density, the earth's core, unlike the mantle, must be metallic in order to generate the geomagnetic field. According to the dynamo theory, fluid motion in the earth's outer core moves conducting material (liquid iron) across an already existing, weak magnetic field and generates an electric current. The electric current, in turn, produces a magnetic field that also interacts with the fluid motion to create a secondary magnetic field. Together, the two fields are stronger than the original and lie essentially along the earth's rotation axis.
Even assuming that an outer core of liquid iron exists, there are major problems with the dynamo theory. Joseph Cater writes:
Scientists are somewhat vague as to how a magnetic field could extend 2,000 miles beyond an electric current. It requires a very powerful current to produce even relatively weak magnetic effects a very short distance above the flow. The electrical resistance of iron, at the alleged temperatures of the core, would be staggering. A steady flow of electricity requires constant potential differences. How are such potential differences produced and maintained in this hypothetical core?
The magnitude, width, and depth of such currents would have to be unbelievable to extend the magnetic field even a small fraction of the distance required, and the EMF [electromotive force] required to produce it would be even more incredible. Where could such an EMF come from? So far, scientists seem reluctant to explain this, especially since these currents are confined to a ball and would therefore follow closed paths.
Originally posted by TheLieWeLive
reply to post by apex
You can easily get Hydrogen from water. It's called electrolysis using a Hydrogen generator. With negative and positive leads from dc current, two pieces of metal and salt you can separate it right in your kitchen. That is why they haven't brought out Hydrogen engines because you could refill them on your own. How do you know something like this isn't probable in nature?
Originally posted by Shadowfoot
reply to post by QuantumDisciple
It is always sad when I come to a great thread after it has gone multiple pages, but I will post this reply in hopes you see it. Very few people it would seem are aware of Dr. John Uri Lloyd(en.wikipedia.org...). Now as a botanical medicine researcher, Dr. Lloyd is pretty much the Lord God of modern botanical medical research, writing and contributing countless volumes like King's Dispensatory (en.wikipedia.org...). What most people do not know is that this incredibly enlightened man was very well versed in philosophy and mysticism, in fact I would say (and the purpose of this reply) he wrote a book named Etidorpha, referred to as a story within a story(en.wikipedia.org...).
Etidorpha encompasses a number of conspiratorial ideas through its pages, secrets of the Masonry, Occult axioms etc...all of which take place on the main characters journey through the earth into its center! Seriously consider reading this book, it is mind blowing from a number of angles, and I believe it will shape many peoples opinions on Hollow Earth Theory if they would only read the book.
This being said, grab a cup of coffee or a glass of wine
Are these concepts meant to be taken literally?
As carbon dioxide sublimates back into the atmosphere during the martian summer, it leaves traces of water. Seasonal winds sweep off the poles at speeds approaching 400 kilometres per hour (250 mph) and transport large amounts of dust and water vapor giving rise to Earth-like frost and large cirrus clouds.
Lava tubes, underground cave-like channels through which lava once flowed, are commonly found on Earth. Because lava tubes are sheltered from the harsh environment on the moon's surface, such tubes could one day be useful for lunar bases.
So we have a few examples of questionable photos. None these offer proof but allow for us to see that idea of polar openings is not asinine. So let's look at this theory.
This is a great post and also a great compilation of information and video highlights. While it is true that neither side of the fence cab absolutely prove or disprove the subject at this point I would suggest that the side of the hollow earthers don't deal in absolutes because the physics involved are a little sketchy and fringe at best.
I have no proof for or against the hollow earth theory, but I wanted to mention that one video that is really insane looking with the backwards hurricane sucking in fire or whatever.
The video you seak of looks exacly like sped up satelite imary. The satelite, if in geostationary position (either in a Tundra orbit or a Molniya orbit) would shoot a video of a seemingly spinning pole (with aurora borealis in this particular video) with spinning clouds etc. You speed this up and BAM.... you got a 'hole in the north pole spewing magic or whatever'.
I hate to seem like a hater, but the history of the Hollow Earth Theory itself is suspect. It comes from a time when science was in its relative infantcy. Edmund Halley proposed this idea back in the 17th century. He was a great atronomer, but he also proposed that the Aurara Borealis was escaping luminescant gas from the inner layers. THIS IS FALSE. His original theory is nothing but a footnote compared to what else he has done. Every theory has been closer to psuedoscience than science. I am not saying its not possible, but when people are willing to ignore empirical evidence in order to try and prove a theory based on bad image interpretations and out of date conjecture, it cannot be called science without the psuedo- before it.
SOUTH POLE. WHERE HOLE?edit on 25-12-2010 by DINSTAAR because: (no reason given)
Originally posted by maranatha8000
I wish everyone would open their eyes to see!
Hell no. Ancient cultures would use myths, legends, and exagerations in order to make sense of stuff that they cold not scientifically observe.