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In physics, an inverse-square law is any physical law stating that some physical quantity or strength is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
According to the laws governing fluid dynamics, a fluid's velocity must increase as it passes through a constriction to satisfy the conservation of mass, while its pressure must decrease to satisfy the conservation of energy. Thus any gain in kinetic energy a fluid may accrue due to its increased velocity through a constriction is negated by a drop in pressure. An equation for the drop in pressure due to the Venturi effect may be derived from a combination of Bernoulli's principle and the continuity equation.
The limiting case of the Venturi effect is when a fluid reaches the state of choked flow, where the fluid velocity approaches the local speed of sound. In choked flow the mass flow rate will not increase with a further decrease in the downstream pressure environment.
However, mass flow rate for a compressible fluid can increase with increased upstream pressure, which will increase the density of the fluid through the constriction (though the velocity will remain constant). This is the principle of operation of a de Laval nozzle.
Referring to the diagram to the right, using Bernoulli's equation in the special case of incompressible flows (such as the flow of water or other liquid, or low speed flow of gas), the theoretical pressure drop (p1 − p2) at the constriction would be given by:
Your diagram is incorrect. You show only a low pressure area between the planets, but you forgot to draw the solar wind curving around the outside edges of the planets. Therefore, any effect from the low pressure areas pulling the bodies together would be canceled by the low pressure areas pulling the bodies apart. Therefore there's no net effect pulling the bodies closer together.
Originally posted by XPLodER
Originally posted by abecedarian
what makes gravity work when, for instance, a person is standing on earth and is 180 degrees opposed from the Sun?
There are so many problems with that reply I don't have time to address all of them, but I'll pick one. The expansion of 3 dimensional space on the scale of the solar system is negligible:
Originally posted by XPLodER
But the process in space is not expansion of gas but an expansion of 3 dimensional space that the bodies reside in.
This moveing medium density is curved around the bodies.
Cooperstock et al. computes that the influence of the cosmological expansion on the Earth's orbit around the Sun amounts to a growth by only one part in a septillion over the age of the Solar System.
Originally posted by Arbitrageur
There are so many problems with that reply I don't have time to address all of them, but I'll pick one. The expansion of 3 dimensional space on the scale of the solar system is negligible:
Originally posted by XPLodER
[quoteBut the process in space is not expansion of gas but an expansion of 3 dimensional space that the bodies reside in.
This moveing medium density is curved around the bodies.
Cooperstock et al. computes that the influence of the cosmological expansion on the Earth's orbit around the Sun amounts to a growth by only one part in a septillion over the age of the Solar System.
So we can disregard everything you said about "an expansion of 3 dimensional space that the bodies reside in" given that magnitude of the effect, can't we?
You're welcome.
Originally posted by XPLodER
not sure why you would think there there is small amounts of energy involved
there is enough energy to hold back the universe (really)
thanks for the links
The heliosphere is a bubble in space "blown" into the interstellar medium (the hydrogen and helium gas that permeates the galaxy) by the solar wind. Although electrically neutral atoms from interstellar volume can penetrate this bubble, virtually all of the material in the heliosphere emanates from the Sun itself. It was thought for decades that it extends in a long comet-like tail, but in 2009 data from the Cassini and IBEX show a different shape.[1][2]
For the first ten billion kilometres of its radius, the solar wind travels at over a million kilometres per hour.[3][4] As it begins to drop out with the interstellar medium, it slows down before finally ceasing altogether. The point where the solar wind slows down is the termination shock; the point where the interstellar medium and solar wind pressures balance is called the heliopause; the point where the interstellar medium, traveling in the opposite direction, slows down as it collides with the heliosphere is the bow shock.
With increasing distance from the Sun, the high-speed streams overtake the slower plasma, producing corotating interaction regions (CIRs) on their leading edges. CIRs are bounded by two shocks at the front and rear edges called the forward and reverse shocks. At these shocks, the density, pressure, and magnetic field strength are all higher. These regions are quite effective as energetic particle accelerators. When ions that have been accelerated at a CIR are observed, they are called corotating ion events.
The IBEX has produced a new set of “all-sky” maps of our solar system’s interaction with the galaxy, allowing researchers to continue viewing and studying the interaction between our galaxy and Sun. The new maps reveal changing conditions in the region that separates the nearest reaches of our galaxy, called the local interstellar medium, from our heliosphere -- a protective bubble that shields and protects our solar system.
The first suggestions concerning the existence and nature of the heliosphere were made in 1955 by Leverett Davis in connection with the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The essential element was that "solar corpuscular radiation" (termed the "solar wind" in 1958 by Eugene Parker) would force matter and magnetic flux in the local interstellar medium outward, thereby partially excluding cosmic rays. The simplest expression of the concept is that the solar wind blows a spherical bubble, the "heliosphere," that continually expands over the lifetime of the solar system. However, if there is a significant pressure in the interstellar medium, the expansion must eventually stop. The resulting quasi-static bubble is then of the order R AU where R is determined by equating the ram pressure of the solar wind to the total interstellar pressure, P (internal + dynamic + magnetic + cosmic ray pressure):
The distances to the termination shock and to the heliopause are not known. Still, with equation (1) and more sophisticated derivative calculations, it is possible to make estimates. Figure 4 shows such a calculation of the shock distance in the upstream direction for a range of interstellar field strengths and densities. The estimated values for R range between 60 and 150 AU for the parameters from Table 1. This now forces the question of whether there a way of remotely determining R. This influences whether we will continue to collect data from spacecraft in the outer heliosphere. If Pioneer 10 and Voyagers 1/2 have any possibility of passing the shock and the heliopause, it would be a great addition to our knowledge of the heliosphere. Only a finite time exists because Pioneer 10 has about reached its limits and the Voyagers will run out of electrical power by about 2030.
OUR PRESENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE HELIOSPHERE
Guided by Table 1, the fast mode speed, cf, in the local fluff may be between 10 and 40 km/s (the sound speed is 10 km/s). Thus, VI may be larger than cf which would modify the configuration shown in Figure 2 in three ways. First, a bow shock can form, much like the bow shock in front of the Earth`s magnetosphere. Second, if VI is supersonic, the pressure on the downstream side and flanks of the termination shock is reduced, causing the shock to be further from the Sun in these directions. These two effects have been numerically modeled in a few cases, an example of which is shown in Figure 3 in which VI is assumed to be highly supersonic (The empty circle inside the termination shock represents the inner boundary for the calculation and has no physical significance.). Thirdly, since BI will generally not be aligned with the heliotail, the configuration will no longer be axisymmetric about the heliotail axis. However, effects of an arbitrary BI have not yet been incorporated into numerical simulations.
Table 1. Properties of the Very Local Interstellar Medium
Property Value
NEUTRAL COMPONENT
Flow Speed 25 +/- 2 km/s
Flow Direction 75.4 ecliptic longitude
-7.5 ecliptic latitude
Hydrogen density 0.10 +/- 0.01 /cubic cm
Helium density 0.010 +/- 0.003 /cubic cm
Hydrogen temperature (7 +/- 2) x 1000K
Helium temperature (7 +/- 2) x 1000K
IONIZED COMPONENT
Electron density < 0.3/ cubic cm
Flow speed Assumed same as neutral component
Flow direction Assumed same as neutral component
Ion temperature Assumed same as neutral component
MAGNETIC FIELD
Magnitude 0.1 - 0.5 nT
Direction Unknown
COSMIC RAYS
Total pressure (1.3+/-0.2) x 10^(-12)dynes/square cm
Pressure is an effect which occurs when a force is applied on a surface. Pressure is the amount of force acting on a unit area. The symbol of pressure is P.[1][2]
[edit] Formula
Conjugate variables
of thermodynamics
Pressure Volume
(Stress) (Strain)
Temperature Entropy
Chemical potential Particle number
Mathematically:
where:
P is the pressure,
F is the normal force,
A is the area.
The mass density of a material varies with temperature and pressure. (The variance is typically small for solids and liquids and much greater for gasses.) Increasing the pressure on an object decreases the volume of the object and therefore increase its density. Increasing the temperature of a substance (with some exceptions) decreases its density by increasing the volume of that substance. In most materials, heating the bottom of a fluid results in convection of the heat from bottom to top of the fluid due to the decrease of the density of the heated fluid. This causes it to rise relative to more dense unheated material.
The reciprocal of the density of a substance is called its specific volume, a representation commonly used in thermodynamics. Density is an intensive property in that increasing the amount of a substance does not increase its density; rather it increases its mass.
SA of a sphere = 4*pi*r^2
V of a sphere = (4*pi*r^3)/3
What you seem to be referring to is "flow" rather than what you claimed earlier, which is "expansion". Yes the solar wind flows through the solar system, like water flows through the garden hose, but this flow doesn't mean the heliosphere is expanding nor does it mean the garden hose is getting any longer just because there is flow.Data on the termination shock and heliopause of our heliosphere is a bit sketchy, but again there's no indication it's constantly expanding. The solar wind does have a constant outward flow but this may be a more or less steady state condition with some deviation (like flares and CMEs), but no consistent growth or "expansion" as you put it, that I'm aware of.
Originally posted by XPLodER
i think the main points are that our sun blows a bubble in a 6000 degree interstella space medium,
for that bubble to hold back the "pressure" of the interstella medium requires a masive amount of pressure.
this pressure is massive to to "hold back" the "pressure" of the interstella medium and requires a constant flow of "pressure" from the sun to the helio shock. this pressure is required to "fill" the bubble and to hold it open and is a continuous "flow" from the sun.