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Yandarbiyev, Chechnya's acting president in 1996-1997, had lived in Qatar since 2000. Moscow had sought his extradition on charges of terrorism and links to al-Qaida. The United Nations and Washington had also linked him to terrorism.
"Today's decision by the Qatari court will show whether the Russian government itself can justifiably be called a terrorist organization," he said.
Reading out the verdict during a brief public hearing, Nisf accused the "Russian leadership" of being behind the killing, reported Agence France-Presse (AFP).
"The Russian leadership issued an order to assassinate the former Chechen leader Yandarbiyev," he said, adding the scheme was "discussed at Russian intelligence headquarters in Moscow ."
Yandarbiyev's widow, Malak, who attended the session, said she "accepted the verdict" and believed "that the two Russian agents were obliged by the Moscow government to carry out" their act.
The verdict "proves that the Russian government practices terrorism," said Ahmad Zakaiev, who presented Chechen President Aslan Maskhadov in the trial.
Moscow insists that the Russians are innocent and urges Qatar to free them. The Russian Foreign Ministry said in a statement that the Russian citizens "were staying lawfully in Qatar and fulfilled their information analysis mission as part of joint effort against international terrorism without any violations of the local legislation."
Russian representatives have emphasized that the Russians were seized illegally and violently. During the investigation the detainees were also subjected to psychological and physical exertion.
He adds that the convicted men will appeal the verdict and if that fails they will ask to be allowed to serve their sentences in Russia.
Russian and Qatari diplomats sought to downplay the implications of the case by agreeing to let the matter run its course in the courts.
Political analyst Masha Lipman, at the Carnegie Center in Moscow, says the ruling was expected even though it was a complicated case with political overtones.
"It looks like there was a lot of evidence indicated," she said. "I don't think the government of Qatar was interested in accusing people who did not commit the crime."
Some observers say the two governments may now negotiate a face-saving end to the case, either having the men pardoned or sent back to Russia.