These events here are not unlike nuclear winter.
Source of the next 4 quotes is...
"LAKI (1783) -- The eastern U.S. recorded the lowest-ever winter average temperature in 1783-84, about 4.8OC below the 225-year average. Europe also
experienced an abnormally severe winter. Benjamin Franklin suggested that these cold conditions resulted from the blocking out of sunlight by dust and
gases created by the Iceland Laki eruption in 1783. The Laki eruption was the largest outpouring of basalt lava in historic times. Franklin's
hypothesis is consistent with modern scientific theory, which suggests that large volumes of SO2 are the main culprit in haze-effect global
"TAMBORA (1815) -- Thirty years later, in 1815, the eruption of Mt. Tambora, Indonesia, resulted in an extremely cold spring and summer in 1816,
which became known as the year without a summer. The Tambora eruption is believed to be the largest of the last ten thousand years. New England and
Europe were hit exceptionally hard. Snowfalls and frost occurred in June, July and August and all but the hardiest grains were destroyed. Destruction
of the corn crop forced farmers to slaughter their animals. Soup kitchens were opened to feed the hungry. Sea ice migrated across Atlantic shipping
lanes, and alpine glaciers advanced down mountain slopes to exceptionally low elevations."
"KRAKATAU (1883) -- Eruption of the Indonesian volcano Krakatau in August 1883 generated twenty times the volume of tephra released by the 1980
eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Krakatau was the second largest eruption in history, dwarfed only by the eruption of neighboring Tambora in 1815 (see
above). For months after the Krakatau eruption, the world experienced unseasonably cool weather, brilliant sunsets, and prolonged twilights due to the
spread of aerosols throughout the stratosphere. The brilliant sunsets are typical of atmospheric haze. The unusual and prolonged sunsets generated
considerable contemporary debate on their origin.They also provided inspiration for artists who dipicted vibrant nature of the sunsets in several late
19th-century paintings, two of which are noted here."
"PINATUBO (1991) -- Mt. Pinatubo erupted in the Philippines on June 15, 1991, and one month later Mt. Hudson in southern Chile also erupted. The
Pinatubo eruption produced the largest sulfur oxide cloud this century. The combined aerosol plume of Mt. Pinatubo and Mt. Hudson diffused around the
globe in a matter of months. The data collected after these eruptions show that mean world temperatures decreased by about 1 degree Centigrade over
the subsequent two years. This cooling effect was welcomed by many scientists who saw it as a counter-balance to global warming."
Here is one on Yellowstone...
“A super-volcanic eruption of that magnitude in the Yellowstone region is definitely possible,”says Robock, a professor of climatology in the
department of environmental sciences at Cook College for the past six years. “Such a cataclysmic eruption on the same order happened in Sumatra 70,000
years ago. If you make it 100 times larger than Pinatubo, you will get something like a nuclear winter. Such an event would devastate the United
Or how about this article dealing specifically with nuclear weapons...
The potential effect a nuclear exchange could have on climate was first presented in 1983 and is most commonly know as "Nuclear Winter". The premise
is that a large-scale nuclear exchange between nations could conceivably have a catastrophic global effect on climate.
The explosion of not even one-half of the combined number of warheads in the United States and Russia would expel such enormous quantities of dust and
smoke into the atmosphere from resulting firestorms after the blast, that it would be sufficient to block off sunlight for several months,
particularly in the northern hemisphere. The prevention of incoming solar radiation would cause temperatures to drop and destroy plant life and create
a subfreezing climate until the dust dispersed. Damage to the zone layer is also a possibility so that further damage would result from the earth's
inability to screen out of the ultraviolet radiation. A sufficiently prolonged episode would spell the end of human civilization.
Today, the world's reduced nuclear arsenals could cause nuclear winter many times over. The normal nuclear firepower for each of the US Navy's 18
Trident missile-firing submarines is 12-36 megatons. Nikita Moisseyev found that "100-150 megatons...would be...enough to put an end to human life on
earth." (Moisseyev, 1986) Obviously the minimum capability of the US Navy on only 18 submarines is sufficient to potentially put an end to the entire
world over 2 times over!"
This next one deals with the amount of dust produced...
"We knew that nuclear explosions, particularly groundbursts, would lift an enormous quantity of fine soil particles into the atmosphere (more than
100,000 tons of fine dust for every megaton exploded in a surface burst). Our work was further spurred by Paul Crutzen of the Max Planck Institute for
Chemistry in Mainz, West Germany, and by John Birks of the University of Colorado, who pointed out that huge quantities of smoke would be generated in
the burning of cities and forests following a nuclear war."
Or try this quote dealing with atmospheric dust and its cooling effect...
"The presence of dust in the atmosphere prevents solar radiation from reaching the surface of the earth which causes the atmosphere to cool."
Care to comment now?
Since the beginning of the nuclear age there have been a total of 2,044 tests. That averages out to 1 per 9 days. BUT of those 2,044 only 711 were
atmospheric or water tests.
Now that amounts to about 15 per year. Of course the problem is knowing how many were water tests. Water tests don't contribute to the atmospheric
dust like the surface ones do. So we may be able to shave one or two off of that 15 per year number.
Now this brings up the question of whether these above ground tests were partly responsible for the cooling trend observed during the 60's and 70's.
Remember this was a time where scientists were talking about an ice age.
[edit on 6/22/2004 by Indy]
Starwars: This one is for you.
From about 1940 until the trend ended in around 1978 the average temperature in the US dropped by around 1.5 degrees F.
Look at this one..
Pretty decent temperature decline during that era. This cooling too place during a period of industrial growth. One can only assume that nuclear
tests had an impact on that trend. And these tests were greatly controlled. These were tests in barron areas. What happens when you take out a city
and have something of substance to toss into the atmosphere?
[edit on 6/22/2004 by Indy]