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In previous studies, pomegranate juice (PJ) and its ellagitannins inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells. The present study examined the effects of PJ on inflammatory cell signaling proteins in the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. At a concentration of 50 mg/L PJ significantly suppressed TNFα-induced COX-2 protein expression by 79% (SE = 0.042), total pomegranate tannin extract (TPT) 55% (SE = 0.049), and punicalagin 48% (SE = 0.022). Additionally, PJ reduced phosphorylation of the p65 subunit and binding to the NFκB response element 6.4-fold. TPT suppressed NFκB binding 10-fold, punicalagin 3.6-fold, whereas ellagic acid (EA) (another pomegranate polyphenol) was ineffective. PJ also abolished TNFα-induced AKT activation, needed for NFκB activity. Therefore, the polyphenolic phytochemicals in the pomegranate can play an important role in the modulation of inflammatory cell signaling in colon cancer cells.
We recently showed that pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) possesses remarkable antitumor-promoting effects in mouse skin. In this study, employing human prostate cancer cells, we evaluated the antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties of PFE. ...Oral administration of PFE (0.1% and 0.2%, wt/vol) to athymic nude mice implanted with androgen-sensitive CWR22Rν1 cells resulted in a significant inhibition in tumor growth concomitant with a significant decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen levels. We suggest that pomegranate juice may have cancer-chemopreventive as well as cancer-chemotherapeutic effects against prostate cancer in humans.
The present data, therefore, demonstrate that a flavonoid quercetin induces growth inhibition in the human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 through at least two different mechanisms; by inhibiting cell cycle progression through transient M phase accumulation and subsequent G2 arrest, and by inducing apoptosis.
Inhibition of caspase activation completely blocked quercetin-induced apoptosis. Expression of constitutively activated MEK1 in A549 cells led to activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis. The results suggest that in addition to inactivation of Akt-1 and alteration in the expression of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, activation of MEK-ERK is required for quercetin-induced apoptosis in A549 lung carcinoma cells.
Results showed a more than additive interaction for the combination of ellagic acid with resveratrol and furthermore, significant alterations in cell cycle kinetics induced by single compounds and combinations were observed. An isobolographic analysis was performed to assess the apparent synergistic interaction for the combinations of ellagic acid with resveratrol and quercetin with resveratrol in the induction of caspase 3 activity, confirming a synergistic interaction with a combination index of 0.64 for the combination of ellagic acid and resveratrol and 0.68 for quercetin and resveratrol. Results indicate that the anticarcinogenic potential of foods containing polyphenols may not be based on the effects of individual compounds, but may involve a synergistic enhancement of the anticancer effects.
Quercetin inhibited HT-29 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas rutin had no effect on the cell growth. DNA that was isolated from cells treated with 50 μmol/L of quercetin exhibited an oliogonucleosomal laddering pattern characteristic of apoptotic cell death. Western blot analysis of cell lysates revealed that Bcl-2 levels decreased dose-dependently in cells treated with quercetin, but Bax remained unchanged.
We measured effects of quercetin on pancreatic cancer in a nude mouse model. We also investigated the effects of quercetin, rutin, trans-resveratrol and genistein on apoptosis and underlying signaling in pancreatic carcinoma cells in vitro. ...The inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition prevented cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation and apoptosis caused by polyphenols. Nuclear factor-κB activity was inhibited by quercetin and trans-resveratrol, but not genistein, indicating that this transcription factor is not the only mediator of the polyphenols' effects on apoptosis. The results suggest that food-derived polyphenols inhibit pancreatic cancer growth and prevent metastasis by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in cytochrome c release, caspase activation and apoptosis.
He chose black raspberries for this study because previous studies had shown that ellagic acid inhibited carcinogen-induced esophageal and colon cancer in animals. He and his colleagues then tested a series of fruits for their ellagic acid content, finding that berries contained the highest amount. "We then decided to take a food-based approach to cancer prevention and began testing the berries' ability to inhibit chemically-induced esophageal and colon cancer," Stoner said. "Sure enough, we found that freeze-dried berries were highly protective in the esophagus and colon. But we also found that they were ineffective in protecting against lung cancer. "The protective compounds in berries may not be absorbed into the blood stream and delivered to the lungs in high enough amounts to be protective. We do believe that they protect the esophagus and colon because they are absorbed by these organs as the food moves through the digestive tract."
The carcinogen affected the activity of some 2,200 genes in the animals’ esophagus in only one week, but 460 of those genes were restored to normal activity in animals that consumed freeze-dried black raspberry powder as part of their diet during the exposure. These findings, published in recent issue of the journal Cancer Research, also helped identify 53 genes that may play a fundamental role in early cancer development and may therefore be important targets for chemoprevention agents.
We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO•) and influence of p53 status during apoptosis induced by these agents in two isogenic HCT116 human colon carcinomas, wild-type p53 (p53-WT) and complete knockout of p53 (p53-null) cells. Capsaicin and resveratrol, alone or in combination, inhibited cell growth and promoted apoptosis by the elevation of NO•; combined treatment in p53-WT cells was most effective. Increased NO• production after treatment uniformly stimulated p53 and Bax expression through Mdm2 down-regulation in p53-WT cells, whereas all were unaffected in p53-null cells. Both cell types underwent a reduction in the levels of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, cytochrome c loss from mitochondria and activation of caspase 9 together with caspase 3, independently of p53 status.
Studies of nucleosome levels estimated by ELISA and of DNA fragmentation showed that RV induced apoptosis in both papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell lines; these effects were inhibited by pifithrin-[alpha] and by p53 antisense oligonucleotide transfection.
In this study we show that resveratrol has a potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic effect on MDA-MB-231, a highly invasive and metastatic cell line from human breast cancer known to be resistant to several anticancer drugs.
In human colorectal cancer cells, the polyphenol resveratrol (RV) activated the caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. This effect was not mediated via estrogen receptors. Pepstatin A, an inhibitor of lysosomal cathepsin D (CD), not (2S,3S)-trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-3-methylbutane ethyl ester, an inhibitor of cathepsins B and L, prevented RV cytotoxicity. Similar protection was attained by small interference RNA-mediated knockdown of CD protein expression.
Resveratrol inhibited the growth of esophageal cancer cell line EC-9706 in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Resveratrol induced EC-9706 cells to undergo apoptosis with typically apoptotic characteristics, including morphological changes of chromatin condensation, chromatin crescent formation, nucleus fragmentation and apoptotic body formation.
Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin found in grapes and red wine, displays anti-cancer activities through a variety of mechanisms that include the induction of cancer cell apoptosis. Although high concentrations may be needed for the efficacy of resveratrol alone, the compound shows promise as a potent sensitizer of the apoptotic effect of other anti-cancer agents, including death ligand TRAIL. Intracellular heat shock proteins (Hsps) are frequently up-regulated in cancer cells, conferring resistance to apoptosis. Modulation of these proteins may overcome the resistance and increase efficacy of anticancer therapies. In this study, resveratrol caused significant dose-dependent apoptosis or necrosis in the lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia cell lines Jurkat and U937 at 50µM and above.
High-dose of resveratrol triggered apoptosis in five out of six uterine cancer cell lines, as judged from Hoechst nuclear staining and effector caspase cleavage. In accordance, uterine cancer cell proliferation was decreased. Resveratrol also reduced cellular levels of the phosphorylated/active form of anti-apoptotic kinase AKT.
Retinoids are known to inhibit the growth of hormone-dependent but not that of hormone-independent breast cancer cells. We investigated the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) receptors (RARs) in the differential growth-inhibitory effects of retinoids and the underlying mechanism. Our data demonstrate that induction of RAR beta by RA correlates with the growth-inhibitory effect of retinoids. The hormone-independent cells acquired RA sensitivity when the RAR beta expression vector was introduced and expressed in the cells.
In conclusion, our study demonstrates that HPR suppresses malignant cell growth and induces apoptosis at pharmacologically relevant doses. The differential responsiveness by a number of cell lines, especially HL-60R and NB306, to HPR and RA indicates that these compounds may act through different receptors. The clinical use of HPR, particularly in retinoic acid-unresponsive acute promyelocytic leukemia patients, is suggested.
Retinoids have been shown to act as cytostatic agents against a variety of tumor cell types, including squamous carcinoma cells. Recently it was reported that certain retinoids can induce apoptosis as well. Because we are investigating the potential of retinoids in chemoprevention and therapy for head and neck premalignant and malignant lesions, we compared the effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4HPR) on seven human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (17A, 17B, 22A, 22B, 38, SqCC/Y1, and 1483). Six of the seven cell lines showed dramatic morphological changes after treatment with 10 micrometer 4HPR, whereas no such changes were induced by 10 micrometer ATRA. ...These results demonstrate that 4HPR causes apoptosis in several head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and that it is more potent in this effect than ATRA.
The Ca2+ chelator BAPTA was added to the cells before rhein treatment, thus blocking the Ca2+ production and inhibiting rhein-induced apoptosis in A-549 cells. Our data demonstrate that rhein induces apoptosis in A-549 cells via a Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial pathway.
In previous studies, rhein, one of the major bioactive constituents in the rhizome of rhubarb, inhibited the proliferation of various human cancer cells. However, because of its water insolubility, the anti-tumor efficacy of rhein was limited in vivo. In this study, we observed the anti-tumor activity of rhein lysinate (the salt of rhein and lysine easily dissolves in water) in vivo and investigated its mechanism. ...It inhibited tumor growth by both intragastric and intraperitoneal administrations and improved the therapeutic effect of Taxol in H22 hepatocellular carcinoma mice. In conclusion, rhein lysinate offers an anti-tumor activity in vivo and is hopeful to be a chemotherapeutic drug.
Rhein is an anthraquinone compound enriched in the rhizome of rhubarb, a traditional Chinese medicine herb showing anti-tumor promotion function. In this study, we first reported that rhein could induce apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60), characterized by caspase activation, poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and DNA fragmentation. ...Our data demonstrate that rhein induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells via a ROS-independent mitochondrial death pathway.
The effects of rhein on the human hepatoblastoma G2 (Hep G2) cell line were investigated in this study. The results showed that rhein not only inhibited Hep G2 cell growth but also induced apoptosis and blocked cell cycle progression in the G1 phase.
In this study, it was observed that rhein induced S-phase arrest through the inhibition of p53, cyclin A and E and it induced apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum stress by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ release, mitochondrial dysfunction, and caspase-8, -9 and -3 activation in human tongue cancer cell line (SCC-4).
The addition of rosemary extract to ground beef reduces cancer-causing agents that can form upon cooking, U.S. researchers said. Heterocyclic amines are mutagenic compounds that form when meat and fish are cooked at high temperatures -- especially meats that are grilled, pan-fried, broiled or barbecued -- and are categorized as human carcinogens, the researchers said.
Selenium treatment did not protect against development of basal or squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. However, results from secondary end-point analyses support the hypothesis that supplemental selenium may reduce the incidence of, and mortality from, carcinomas of several sites. These effects of selenium require confirmation in an independent trial of appropriate design before new public health recommendations regarding selenium supplementation can be made.
The effects of selenium exposure were studied in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells, and this same cell line adapted to selenium over 6 months to compare acute versus chronic effects of sodium selenite, the latter most closely resembling human clinical trials on the effects of selenium in cancer prevention and therapy. Our results demonstrated that oxidative stress was induced by sodium selenite at high concentrations in both acute and chronic treatments, but outcomes were different. ...Our results in selenite-adapted cells suggest that selenium may exert its effects in human prostate cancer cells by altering intracellular redox state, which subsequently results in cell cycle block.
The trace element nutrient selenium (Se) has been shown to possess cancer-preventive activity in both animal models and humans, but the mechanisms by which this occurs remain to be elucidated. Because angiogenesis is obligatory for the genesis and growth of solid cancers, we investigated, in the study presented here, the hypothesis that Se may exert its cancer-preventive activity, at least in part, by inhibiting cancer-associated angiogenesis. The effects of chemopreventive levels of Se on the intra-tumoral microvessel density and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-induced rat mammary carcinomas and on the proliferation and survival and matrix metalloproteinase activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro were examined.
Seven structurally related flavonoids including luteolin, nobiletin, wogonin, baicalein, apigenin, myricetin and fisetin were used to study their biological activities on the human leukemia cell line, HL-60. On MTT assay, wogonin, baicalein, apigenin, myricetin and fisetin showed obvious cytotoxic effects on HL-60 cells, with wogonin and fisetin being the most-potent apoptotic inducers among them.
All the drugs inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, but baicalin exhibited the greatest antiproliferative activity. The concentration of baicalin necessary to obtain 50% inhibition was 3.4 μg/mL for KU-1, 4.4 μg/mL for EJ-1, and 0.93 μg/mL for MBT-2. For KU-1 and MBT-2, the percentage of cell survival significantly decreased (P
Screening of various natural products in a search for novel inducers of apoptosis in human leukemia cells led us to identify the strong apoptosis-inducing activity in a fraction extracted with methanol from the roots of Sophora subprostrata Chun et T. Chen. We purified the compound that induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells and identified it as sophoranone. Sophoranone inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in various lines of cells from human solid tumors, with 50% inhibition of growth of human stomach cancer MKN7 cells at 1.2 ± 0.3 μM. The growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of sophoranone for leukemia U937 cells were very much stronger than those of other flavonoids, such as daidzein, genistein and quercetin.
Matrine, one of the main active components from the dry roots of Sophora flavescence, was known to induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells in vitro. However, the molecular mechanism of cell apoptosis induced by Matrine remains elusive. Here, we investigated the apoptosis in Matrine-treated human gastric cancer MKN45 cells. The results showed that Matrine could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Further immunoblots revealed that in Matrine-treated cells, caspase-3, -7 were activated and the pro-apoptotic molecules Bok, Bak, Bax, Puma, and Bim were also up-regulated. Our results suggested that Matrine induced gastric cancer MKN45 cells apoptosis via increasing pro-apoptotic molecules of Bcl-2 family.
The Chinese herbal medicine Radix Sophorae is widely applied as an anti-carcinogenic/ anti-metastatic agent against liver cancer. In this study, Leachianone A, isolated from Radix Sophorae, possessed a profound cytotoxic activity against human hepatoma cell line HepG2 in vitro, with an IC(50) value of 3.4microg/ml post-48-h treatment. Its action mechanism via induction of apoptosis involved both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Its anti-tumor effect was further demonstrated in vivo by 17-54% reduction of tumor size in HepG2-bearing nude mice, in which no toxicity to the heart and liver tissues was observed. In conclusion, this is the first report describing the isolation of Leachianone A from Radix Sophorae and the molecular mechanism of its anti-proliferative effect on HepG2 cells.
A total of eleven stilbenes [1-6] and flavonoids [7-11] were investigated for their tumor-specific cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity, using four human tumor cell lines (squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-3, submandibular gland carcinoma HSG and promyelocytic leukemia HL-60) and three normal human oral cells (gingival fibroblast HGF, pulp cell HPC, periodontal ligament fibroblast HPLF). All of the compounds, especially sophorastilbene A , (+)-α-viniferin , piceatannol , quercetin  and isoliquiritigenin , showed higher cytotoxicity against the tumor cell lines than normal cells, yielding tumor-specific indices of 3.6, 4.7, >3.5, >3.3 and 4.0, respectively. Among the seven cell lines, HSC-2 and HL-60 cells were the most sensitive to the cytotoxic action of these compounds. Sophorastilbene A , piceatannol , quercetin  and isoliquiritigenin  induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and activation of caspases -3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently in HL-60 cells. (+)-α-Viniferin  showed similar activity, but only at higher concentrations. All the compounds failed to induce DNA fragmentation and activated caspases to much lesser extents in HSC-2 cells. Western blot analysis showed that sophorastilbene A , piceatannol  and quercetin  did not induce any consistent changes in the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bad) and anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) in HL-60 and HSC-2 cells. An undetectable expression of Bcl-2 protein in control and drug-treated HSC-2 cells may explain the relatively higher sensitivity of this cell line to stilbenes and flavonoids.
ST-induced apoptosis is accompanied by the activation of caspase-3 and the specific proteolytic cleavage of PARP. Concomitantly, ST treatments led to an increase in the proapoptotic Bax levels, while Bcl-2 expression was decreased. Moreover, this effect was attenuated by SOD and catalase. These results suggest that oxidative stress may be involved in the cytotoxicity of ST, and that ST-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells is primarily mediated by the caspase activation pathway.
The 1% Selaginella tamariscina feeding caused a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-(PCNA) labeling index of the glandular stomach epithelium as compared with the MNNG-alone group value although 5% Selaginella tamariscina feeding was only associated with a tendency for decrease. These results suggest that Selaginella tamariscina could be a candidate chemopreventive agent against gastric cancer.
Conclusion The water-soluble part of Selaginella tamariscina can protect mice from rays by inhibiting of apoptosis,adjusting of cell cycle progression of thymus and spleen cells in irradiated mice.
Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria), a widely used herb medicine, was tested for the anticancer effect in its water extract for the first time. The water extract of P. urinaria significantly decreased the number of Lewis lung carcinoma cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner as determined by MTT assay. However, the water extract of P. urinaria did not exert any cytotoxic effect on normal cells such as endothelial cells and liver cells. Result from flow cytometry revealed a dose-dependent increase of dead cells 24 hours after treating Lewis lung carcinoma cells with P. urinaria extract.
Within a certain limit of concentrations,the higher the concentration and the longer the acting time,the stronger the inhibition.Co-cultured with 500 μ g/mL Phyllanthus Urinaria L compound for 72 h,the inhibitory rate reached 93.58 % and IC50 was 240 μ g/mL.Phyllanthus Urinaria L compound at different concentrations had an certain effect on inducing cell apoptosis.Conclusion Phyllanthus Urinaria L compound can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cell,and its mechanism may be related with the induction of hepatoma cell HePG2 apoptosis.
The authors found in an earlier study that Phyllanthus amarus extract could significantly inhibit the solid and ascites tumor development in mice induced by Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells. In the present study, the apoptotic effects of P.amarus against DLA cells in culture was evaluated. P.amarus produced significant reduction in cell viability as determined by the MTT assay.
MTT method determination showed that the extract had inhibiting effect on the multiplication of MKN28 cells and the inhibiting effect was dependent on concentration and time.The result of flow cytometry suggested that the extract could induce MKN28 apoptosis.CONCLUSION The alcohol extract of phyllanthus ruinaria can inhibit the growth of human stomach cell MKN28,and apoptosis is one of its mechanisms.
This study deals with establishment of hairy root cultures of Phyllanthus amarus using Agrobacterium rhizogenes and cytotoxic effects of methanolic extract of hairy roots on human adenocarcinoma cell line, MCF-7. The hairy root extract displayed a linear concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Further, increased concentration of the root extract showed an increase in the percent apoptotic cells from 26% to 36% as determined by annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The observed cytotoxicity correlated well with the increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The overall results amply suggest an appreciable antiproliferative effect of P. amarus hairy root extract on the MCF-7 cells through induction of apoptosis, thereby establishing the potential anticancer activity of the extract.
Styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) is a plant-derived pharmacologically active compound extracted from Goniothalamus sp. Previously, we have reported that SPD inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death, while having minimal effects on non-malignant cells.
We examined the activity of two metabolites of sulindac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug), sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone (exisulind, Prevatec), and a novel highly potent analog of exisulind (CP248) on a series of human prostate epithelial cell lines. Marked growth inhibition was seen with the BPH-1, LNCaP, and PC3 cell lines with IC50 values of about 66 microM, 137 microM, and 64 nM for sulindac sulfide, exisulind, and CP248, respectively. DNA flow cytometry and 4',6'-diamido-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining indicated that these three compounds also induced apoptosis in all of these cell lines.
By depriving cancer tumors of the copper supply they need to form new blood vessels, researchers in the U-M Medical School have stopped the growth of the disease in a small group of patients with advanced cancer. Five of six patients whose copper levels were kept at one-fifth of normal for more than 90 days had no growth of existing tumors or formation of new ones, according to a paper published in the January, 2000, issue of Clinical Cancer Research. The sixth patient had progression of only one tumor; all other tumors within her body remained stable. Twelve other patients did not achieve the target copper level, or could not stay at the target level for 90 days, because of disease progression.
An experimental drug called tetrathiomolybdate (referred to from here on as "TM") is currently undergoing clinical trials at the University of Michigan. TM is known to decrease copper levels in the body by a process called "chelation". In simple language, TM binds copper to a protein, forming a complex which can then be excreted from the body. Copper is used by many organs in the body, but the use which is of interest here is that it is essential to the growth of new blood vessels, a process called "angiogenesis". ("Angio" means blood vessel and "genesis" means new formation.) Whenever tumor cells "set up housekeeping" in the body, blood vessels are necessary to provide nourishment for their growth. Once a tumor reaches the size of two millimeters it needs a blood supply to maintain itself. Without an adequate level of copper in the blood, this new blood supply cannot form and thus the tumor cannot enlarge.
The inhibition of ERK and AKT activity by THC was accompanied by activation of the proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAD. Reduction of BAD protein expression by RNA interference rescued colorectal cancer cells from THC-induced apoptosis. These data suggest an important role for CB1 receptors and BAD in the regulation of apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. The use of THC, or selective targeting of the CB1 receptor, may represent a novel strategy for colorectal cancer therapy.
Here, we show that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), through activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors, reduces human breast cancer cell proliferation by blocking the progression of the cell cycle and by inducing apoptosis.
The effect of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psycho-active component of marijuana, in human prostate cancer cells PC-3 was investigated. THC caused apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Morphological and biochemical changes induced by THC in prostate PC-3 cells shared the characteristics of an apoptotic phenomenon. First, loss of plasma membrane asymmetry determined by fluorescent anexin V binding. Second, presence of apoptotic bodies and nuclear fragmentation observed by DNA staining with 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Third, presence of typical 'ladder-patterned' DNA fragmentation. Central cannabinoid receptor expression was observed in PC-3 cells by immunofluorescence studies. However, several results indicated that the apoptotic effect was cannabinoid receptor-independent, such as lack of an effect of the potent cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2, inability of cannabinoid antagonist AM 251 to prevent cellular death caused by THC and absence of an effect of pertussis toxin pre-treatment.
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary cannabinoid of marijuana and has been shown to either potentiate or inhibit tumor growth, depending on the type of cancer and its pathogenesis. Little is known about the activity of cannabinoids like THC on epidermal growth factor receptor-overexpressing lung cancers, which are often highly aggressive and resistant to chemotherapy. In this study, we characterized the effects of THC on the EGF-induced growth and metastasis of human non-small cell lung cancer using the cell lines A549 and SW-1573 as in vitro models. We found that these cells express the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, known targets for THC action, and that THC inhibited EGF-induced growth, chemotaxis and chemoinvasion.
Treatment of human leukemic cell lines HL-60 and K-562 with extracts of green and black tea and their polyphenols epigallocatechin gallate and theaflavins, respectively, showed a dose dependent inhibition of growth as a result of cytotoxicity and suppression of cell proliferation.
The exposure of human stomach cancer KATO III cells to black tea theaflavin extract, free theaflavin, and theaflavin digallate that are main components of the extract, led to both growth inhibition and the induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Morphological changes showing apoptotic bodies were observed in the cells treated with black tea theaflavin extract, theaflavin and theaflavin digallate. The fragmentations by these theaflavin compounds of DNA to oligonucleosomal-sized fragments that are characteristics of apoptosis were observed to be concentration- and time-dependent. These data suggest that drinking of black tea in large amounts is recommended to protect humans from stomach cancer.
Prostate cancer (PCA), the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men, represents an excellent candidate disease for chemoprevention studies because of its particularly long latency period, high rate of mortality and morbidity. Infusion of black tea and its polyphenolic constituents have been shown to possess antineoplastic effects in androgen dependent PCA in both in vivo and in vitro models including transgenic animals.
TQ was able to inhibit cell proliferation, reduce cell viability and induce apoptosis. TQ at 100 µM and CDDP at 5 µM inhibited cell proliferation by nearly 90%and the combination showed synergism. TQ was able to induced apoptosis in both NCI-H460 and NCI-H146 cell lines. TQ also appears to affect the extracellular environmentinhibiting invasion and reducing the production of two cytokines ENA-78 and Gro-alphawhich are involved in neo-angiogenesis.
These findings demonstrate that the volatile oil of N. sativa has the ability to inhibit colon carcinogenesis of rats in the postinitiation stage, with no evident adverse side effects, and that the inhibition may be associated, in part, with suppression of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa.
Here, we report that TQ exhibits antiproliferative effect, induces apoptosis, disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential and triggers the activation of caspases 8, 9 and 3 in myeloblastic leukemia HL-60 cells. The apoptosis induced by TQ was inhibited by a general caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK; a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, z-DEVD-FMK; as well as a caspase-8-specific inhibitor, z-IETD-FMK.
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the deadliest of all tumors. Previously, we were the first to show that Thymoquinone (TQ) derived from black seed (Nigella sativa) oil has anti-tumor activity against PC. However, the concentration of TQ required was considered to be high to show this efficacy. Therefore, novel analogs of TQ with lower IC50 are highly desirable.
Trientine dihydrochloride (trientine) is used in clinical practice as an alternative copper (Cu)-chelating agent for patients with Wilson's disease of penicillamine intolerance. In our study, we examined the effect of Cu-chelating agents on tumor development and angiogenesis in the murine HCC xenograft model. Although both trientine and penicillamine in the drinking water suppressed the tumor development, trientine exerted a more potent inhibitory effect than penicillamine. In combination with a Cu-deficient diet, both trientine and penicillamine almost abolished the HCC development.
The Uncaria genus is an important source of medicinal natural products, particularly alkaloids and triterpenes. The collected information is an attempt to cover the more recent developments in the ethnobotany, pharmacology and phytochemistry of this genus. During the past 20 years, alkaloids, terpenes, quinovic acid glycosides, flavonoids and coumarins have been isolated from Uncaria. Fifty-three novel structures are reported in this review. The species in which the largest number of compounds has been identified is the Peruvian Uncaria tomentosa or ‘cat’s claw.’ Pharmacological studies are described according to cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, immunostimulation, antioxidant, CNS-related response, vascular, hypotensive, mutagenicity and antibacterial properties. The potential for development of leads from Uncaria continues to grow, particularly in the area of immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and vascular-related conditions.
Natural products are still an untapped source of promising lead compounds for the generation of antineoplastic drugs. Here, we investigated for the first time the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of highly purified oxindole alkaloids, namely isopteropodine (A1), pteropodine (A2), isomitraphylline (A3), uncarine F (A4) and mitraphylline (A5) obtained from Uncaria tomentosa, a South American Rubiaceae, on human lymphoblastic leukaemia T cells (CCRF-CEM-C7H2). Four of the five tested alkaloids inhibited proliferation of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Furthermore, the antiproliferative effect of the most potent alkaloids pteropodine (A2) and uncarine F (A4) correlated with induction of apoptosis. After 48 h, 100 μmol/l A2 or A4 increased apoptotic cells by 57%. CEM-C7H2 sublines with tetracycline-regulated expression of bcl-2, p16ink4A or constitutively expressing the cowpox virus protein crm-A were used for further studies of the apoptosis-inducing properties of these alkaloids. Neither overexpression of bcl-2 or crm-A nor cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase by tetracycline-regulated expression of p16INK4A could prevent alkaloid-induced apoptosis. Our results show the strong apoptotic effects of pteropodine and uncarine F on acute leukaemic lymphoblasts and recommend the alkaloids for further studies in xenograft models.
In this paper, we report the anticancer activities of Uncaria rhynchophylla extracts, a Rubiaceae plant native to China. Traditionally, Uncaria rhynchophylla has been used in the prevention and treatment of neurotoxicity. However, the cytotoxic activity of Uncaria rhynchophylla against human colon carcinoma cells has not, until now, been elucidated. We found that the methanolic extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla (URE) have cytotoxic effects on HT-29 cells. The URE showed highly cytotoxic effects via the MTT reduction assay, LDH release assay, and colony formation assay. As expected, URE inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, the methanolic URE of the 500 μg/ml showed 15.8% inhibition against growth of HT-29 cells. It induced characteristic apoptotic effects in HT-29 cells, including chromatin condensation and sharking occurring 24 h when the cells were treated at a concentration of the 500 μg/ml.
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a rare calcitonin-producing tumor, is derived from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and is characterized by constitutive Bcl-2 overexpression. The tumor is relatively insensitive to radiation therapy as well as conventional chemotherapy. To date, the only curative treatment is the early and complete surgical removal of all neoplastic tissue. In this study, the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of fractions obtained from Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC, commonly known as uña de gato or cat's claw were investigated. Cell growth of MTC cells as well as enzymatic activity of mitochondrial dehydrogenase was markedly inhibited after treatment with different fractions of the plant. Furthermore, there was an increase in the expressions of caspase-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fraction, while bcl-2 overexpression remained constant. In particular, the alkaloids isopterpodine and pteropodine of U. tomentosa exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect on MTC cells, whereas the alkaloid-poor fraction inhibited cell proliferation but did not show any pro-apoptotic effects. These promising results indicate the growth-restraining and apoptotic potential of plant extracts against neuroendocrine tumors, which may add to existing therapies for cancer.
Extracts of the bark of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat’s Claw – Uña de Gato) have been used traditionally for their anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. We investigated the effect of a hydroethanolic extract (UT) of U. tomentosa on a) the viability of primary and tumor cells, b) the inflammatory response (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6] and nitric oxide [NO]) both in vitro and in vivo, c) B16/BL6 melanoma cell growth and metastasis in the C57BL/6 mouse, and d) nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity in LPS-stimulated HeLa cells. UT did not show an important cytotoxic effect in vitro at the doses up to 300 μg/ml, but did inhibit tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. UT inhibited TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production in vitro. NF-κB activity was also inhibited. Our studies show that UT merits further study for its effects on processes common to inflammation and cancer.
Vanillin, a food flavoring agent, has been reported to show anti-mutagenic activity and to inhibit chemical carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect of vanillin on the growth and metastasis of 4T1 mammary adenocarcinoma cells in BALB/c mice. Mice orally administered with vanillin showed significantly reduced numbers of lung metastasized colonies compared to controls. In vitro studies revealed that vanillin, at concentrations that were not cytotoxic, inhibited invasion and migration of cancer cells and inhibited enzymatic activity of MMP-9 secreted by the cancer cells.
Results showed that apoptosis was induced by vanillin and the IC(50) for HT-29 and NIH/3T3 normal cell lines were 400 microg/ml and 1000 microg/ml, respectively. Different concentrations of vanillin arrest cell cycle at different checkpoints. 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine-labeling cell proliferation assay showed that G0/G1 arrest was achieved at lower concentration of vanillin (200 microg/ml) while cell cycle analysis by flow cytometer showed that G2/M arrest occurs at higher concentration of vanillin (1000 microg/ml).
The redox protein thioredoxin plays an important role in controlling cancer cell growth through regulation of DNA synthesis and transcription factor activity. Thioredoxin is overexpressed by a number of human primary cancers and its expression is decreased during dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of mouse WEHI7.2 thymoma cells. We examined the ability of WEHI7.2 cells stably transfected with human thioredoxin cDNA showing increased levels of cytoplasmic thioredoxin to undergo apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The cells were protected from apoptosis induced by dexamethasone, staurosporine, etoposide, and thapsigargin, but not by N-acetyl-sphingosine.
Morphologic features of the cells treated with VK2 were typical for apoptosis along with caspase-3 activation and becoming positive for APO2.7 monoclonal antibody, an antibody which specifically detects the cell undergoing apoptosis. In addition to the leukemia cell line, LU-139 cells accumulated into G0/G1 phase during 72-h exposure to VK2. Combined treatment of cisplatin plus VK2 resulted in enhanced cytocidal effect compared to the cells treated with either cisplatin or VK2 alone. Since VK2 is a safe medicine without prominent adverse effects including bone marrow suppression, our data strongly suggest the therapeutic possibility of using VK2 for the treatment of patients with lung carcinoma.
These data demonstrated that VK2 induced apoptosis and activated the MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway in a cell-type specific manner, and a MEK inhibitor could augment the cell death in these cells.
Vitamin K2 (VK2) has a growth inhibitory effect on various types of cancer cells in vitro, and its efficacy has been demonstrated in clinical applications in a number of patients with leukemia and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the effect of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction and the concomitant use of an anticancer agent by VK2 (menaquinone: MK4), on gastric cancer cell lines were examined. When 4 kinds of gastric cancer cells (KATO III, MKN7, MKN74 and FU97) were exposed to MK4, the cell growth was inhibited in an MK4 dose-dependent manner. Morphologically, apoptosis induced by MK4 was recognized in FU97, but only a slight number of apoptotic images was recognized in other cell lines.
Hepatocellular carcinoma was detected in 2 of the 21 women given vitamin K2 and 9 of the 19 women in the control group. The cumulative proportion of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was smaller in the treatment group (log-rank test, P = .02). On univariate analysis, the risk ratio for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in the treatment group compared with the control group was 0.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.91; P = .04).
A family of compounds found in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and watercress, blocked lung cancer progression in both animal studies and in tests with human lung cancer cells, report researchers from Georgetown University Medical Center and the Institute for Cancer Prevention. They say the results, published in a set of papers in the September 15 issue of Cancer Research, suggest that these chemicals -- put into a veggie pill of sorts -- might some day be used to help current and former smokers ward off development of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in Americans.
We showed that willow bark extract BNO 1455 an its fractions inhibit the cell growth and promote apoptosis in human colon and lung cancer cell lines irrespective of their COX-selectivity.
In vivo Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells (EACC) were injected into the intraperitoneal cavity of mice. The willow extract was fed via stomach tube. The (EACC) derived tumor growth was reduced by the willow extract and death was delayed (for 35 days). In vitro the willow extract could kill the majority (75%–80%) of abnormal cells among primary cells harvested from seven patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 13 with AML (acute myeloid leukemia). DNA fragmentation patterns within treated cells inferred targeted cell death by apoptosis had occurred. The metabolites within the willow extract may act as tumor inhibitors that promote apoptosis, cause DNA damage, and affect cell membranes and/or denature proteins.
Blazein was isolated from mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill) and identified by Mass and 1H-NMR as blazein. The effect of blazein on the DNA of human various cancer cells was investigated. DNA fragmentations by blazein to oligonucreosomal-sized fragments, a characteristic of apoptosis, were observed in the human lung LU99 and stomach KATO III cancer cells. The DNA fragmentations by blazein were observed from day 2 (KATO III cells) or day 3 (LU99 cells) after the addition of blazein to the culture cells. These findings suggest that growth inhibition by blazein results from the induction of apoptosis by the compound.
White button mushrooms are a widely consumed food containing phytochemicals beneficial to cancer prevention. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of white button mushroom extract and its major component, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and mushroom extract in vivo. In all cell lines tested, mushroom inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis within 72 h of treatment.
We have recently shown that cannabinoids induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), a malignant B-cell lymphoma that expresses high levels of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2). In the current study, the role of each receptor and the signal transduction triggered by receptor ligation were investigated. Induction of apoptosis after treatment with the synthetic agonists R(+)-methanandamide [R(+)-MA] and Win55,212-2 (Win55; (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl) pyrrolo-[1,2,3-d,e]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenyl-methanone) was dependent on both cannabinoid receptors,
In this study, we investigated the cell growth inhibitory potential of XN on cultured human colon cancer cells. Cell proliferation was measured by sulforhodamine B staining. Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage, activation of caspases-3, -7, -8, and -9, and Bcl-2 family protein expression were detected by Western blot analyses. XN significantly reduced proliferation of the HCT116-derived colon cancer cell line 40-16. ...We conclude that induction of apoptosis by downregulation of Bcl-2 and activation of the caspase cascade may contribute to the chemopreventive or therapeutic potential of XN.
Limited in vitro studies indicate that several prenylated flavonoids present in the hop plant (Humulus lupulus) possess anticarcinogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-tumorigenic effects of xanthohumol (XN), the major prenylflavonoid in hops, on prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia. ...XN and its oxygenated derivative also induced cell cycle changes in both cells lines, seen in an elevated sub G1 peak at 48h treatment. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the activation of proapoptotic proteins, Bax and p53. XN and its derivative caused decreased activation of NFkappaB. This work suggests that XN and its oxidation product, XAL, may be potentially useful as a chemopreventive agent during prostate hyperplasia and prostate carcinogenesis, acting via induction of apoptosis and down-regulation of NFkappaB activation in BPH-1 cells.
Xanthohumol (XN), a natural polyphenol present in beer, is known to exert anti-cancer effects. However, its precise mechanisms are not yet clearly defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of XN in breast cancer xenografts in nude mice. ...Oral administration of XN to nude mice inoculated with MCF7 cells resulted in central necrosis within tumours, reduced inflammatory cell number, focal proliferation areas, increased percentage of apoptotic cells and decreased microvessel density. Anti-angiogenic effects of XN were further confirmed by immunoblotting for factor VIII expression in XN-treated tumours as compared to controls. Decreased immunostaining for NFκB, phosphorylated-inhibitor of kappa B and interleukin-1β were also observed as well as a significant decrease in NFκB activity to 60% of control values. These novel findings indicate that XN is able to target both breast cancer and host cells, namely inflammatory and endothelial cells, suggesting its potential use as a double-edge anti-cancer agent.
Based on these observations, lymphocytes from patients with B-CLL were cultured in the presence of XA in vitro. XA induced a dose-dependent killing of B-CLL cells at an LD50(24 h) of 24.4 ± 6.6 μM, independent of known adverse prognostic factors including functional loss of p53. Cell death was associated with poly (ADP)-ribose polymerase cleavage and annexin V positivity, suggestive of an apoptotic mechanism. Surprisingly, p70S6K phosphorylation was stimulated upon XA treatment. In conclusion, XA has an antitumor activity on B-CLL cells in vitro. The molecular mechanisms behind this pro-apoptotic effect deserve further investigation.
Zerumbone is a cytotoxic component isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, a herbal plant which is also known as lempoyang. ...zerumbone was found to induce the apoptotic process in HepG2 cells through the up and down regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein independently of functional p53 activity.
We demonstrated here for the first time that zerumbone (ZER), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene, significantly suppressed the proliferation of promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cells among several leukemia cell lines, but not human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest followed by apoptosis with 10 microM of IC50.
Our findings suggest that dietary administration of ZER effectively suppresses mouse colon and lung carcinogenesis through multiple modulatory mechanisms of growth, apoptosis, inflammation and expression of NFκB and HO-1 that are involved in carcinogenesis in the colon and lung.