Originally posted by IgnoranceIsntBlisss
reply to post by JohnnyCanuck
How nice of you to tell potentially terminal people to stick it out with the Doc's narrow approaches after they've been told they have a short time left to live. Rock on, eh.
Originally posted by JohnnyCanuck
Depriving people of that opportunity by distracting them with UNPROVEN therapies is morally reprehensible.
nd that time spent self-medicating with complementary therapy might just lose you that window of opportunity.
You have plenty of folks on ATS that survived cancer using traditional medicine. How many have...themselves...beaten cancer using complementary means?
The sound of crickets chirping is indeed your answer.
Originally posted by JohnnyCanuck
It is far too easy to shout about medical conspiracies and the suppression of wonder drugs...when you're healthy.
Originally posted by JohnnyCanuck
You are certainly not the only one on board with that story. One really big fear is that folks with their cancer at a treatable point ignore their oncologists and seek alternative means, instead...and when they don't work, it's too late to treat by any means.
In the couple of months between diagnosis of my prostate cancer and my radiation treatment I used complementary medicine to try and bring down my PSA...to no avail. I had the brachytherapy and the cancer is gone...and because it was caught early and the treatment highly focused, there's none of that pesky incontinence and erectile dysfunction. They don't tell you that part when they're telling you to ignore your medical team and eat these apricot pits instead.
By the way, an herbal preparation called zyflamend is in clinical trials for cancer treatment right now. How does that factor into the conspiracy?
Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors have suppressive effects on several types of cancer cells including prostate cancer. In this study, we considered the potential COX-inhibitory activity of a unique anti-inflammatory herbal preparation (Zyflamend; New Chapter, Inc., Brattleboro, VT) and analyzed its effects on the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. COX inhibitory activity of Zyflamend was determined by a spectrophotometric-based assay using purified ovine COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Effects of Zyflamend on LNCaP cell growth and apoptosis in vitro were assessed by cell counting, Western blot detection of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and measurement of caspase-3 activity in treated and control cell extracts.
The multiherb anti-inflammatory product Zyflamend was investigated for its antiproliferative effects on PC3 human prostate cancer cells and eicosanoid metabolism in this prostate cancer cell line. Zyflamend produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of cloned COX-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX enzyme activities, with inhibition of 5-HETE production being greater than that of PGE(2) formation. Applied to intact PC3 cells, Zyflamend was found to be most potent against 12-LOX, followed by 5-LOX and then COX activities. The concentration-dependent inhibition of PC3 cell proliferation was associated with a selective G(2)/M arrest of the cell cycle and induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by flow cytometric staining of PC3 cells with annexin V. Zyflamend also produced a concentration-dependent down-regulation of 5-LOX and 12-LOX expression.
Zyflamend, a polyherbal preparation, was designed based on constituents that exhibit antiproliferative, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiangiogenic, and apoptotic activities through a mechanism that is not well defined. Because the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB has been shown to regulate proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells, we postulated that Zyflamend modulates the activity of NF-kappa B. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of this preparation on NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB-regulated gene products. We found that Zyflamend inhibited receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis, suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced invasion, and potentiated the cytotoxicity induced by TNF and chemotherapeutic agents, all of which are known to require NF-kappa B activation. Zyflamend suppressed NF-kappa B activation induced by both TNF and cigarette smoke condensate.
HOLY BASIL (Ocimum sanctum) Contains ursolic acid, which significantly enhances detoxification and promotes a healthy inflammation response.*
TURMERIC Unique curcumin phytonutrient complex, synergistic with green tea, significantly multiplying each herb's ability to promote healthy eicosanoid balance.*
GINGER Supercritical extract modulates both eicosanoid cascades and offers numerous anti-aging constituents*
GREEN TEA Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences report green tea polyphenols exert a beneficial effect on healthy eicosanoid balance.* Major university database notes green tea contains 51 phytonutrients that promote a healthy inflammation response.*
ROSEMARY Dual extracts offer highly concentrated, full spectrum eicosanoid balance and support detoxification.*
HU ZHANG (Polygonum cuspidatum) Richest known resveratrol source, with each daily serving delivering the approximate equivelant of six glasses of resveratrol-rich wine.
CHINESE GOLDTHREAD AND BARBERRY Unique berberine phytonutrient complex naturally promotes a healthy inflammation response.*
OREGANO Source of large number of phytonutrient modulators (31) according to USDA database.*
BAIKAL SKULLCAP Unique baicalin phytonutrient complex, naturally promotes healthy inflammation response.*
This case study describes an invasive bladder cancer patient at a high risk for disease recurrence who only followed a D-fraction regimen (with vitamin C) refusing other medical interventions. The two-year follow-up yet indicated no clinical evidence of progression of residual disease or recurrence with possible disease remission.
Originally posted by IgnoranceIsntBlisss
So now you're not going to describe for us the alternative regimen you self-medicated with, and whether or not it slowed / stopped the growth?
The cytoprotective effect of piperine on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) induced experimental lung cancer was investigated in male Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of piperine (100 mg/kg body wt.) effectively suppressed lung cancer initiated with B[a]P as revealed by the decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation with concomitant increase in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (reduced glutathione, vitamin E and vitamin C) levels when compared to lung cancer bearing animals. Our data suggest that piperine may extend its chemopreventive effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), from green tea (Camellia sinensis), has demonstrated chemopreventive activity in animal models of carcinogenesis. Previously, we reported the bioavailability of EGCG in rats (1.6%) and mice (26.5%). Here, we report that cotreatment with a second dietary component, piperine (from black pepper), enhanced the bioavailability of EGCG in mice.
The effect of piperine on the inhibition of lung metastasis induced by B16F-10 melanoma cells was studied in C57BL/6 mice. Simultaneous administration of the compound with tumor induction produced a significant reduction (95.2%) in tumor nodule formation. Increased lung collagen hydroxyproline (22.37 μg/mg protein) in the metastasized lungs of the control animals compared to normal animals (0.95 μg/mg protein) was significantly reduced (2.59 μg/mg protein) in the piperine-treated animals. The high amount of uronic acid (355.83 μg/100 mg tissue) in the metastasized control animals was significantly reduced (65 μg/100 mg tissue) in the animals treated with piperine. Lung hexosamine content was also significantly reduced in the piperine-treated animals (0.98 mg/100 mg lyophilized tissue) compared to the untreated tumor-bearing animals (4.2 mg/100 mg lyophilized tissue). The elevated levels of serum sialic acid and serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activity in the untreated control animals was significantly reduced in the animals treated with piperine. The piperine-treated animals even survived the experiment (90 days). Histopathology of the lung tissue also correlated with the lifespan of the drug-treated animals. Our results demonstrate the antimetastatic activity of piperine, an alkaloid present in plants such as Piper nigrum and Piper longum.
We studied the effect of piperine on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in rat hepatoma cells H4IIEC3/G-(H4IIE) using cellular growth and formation of micronuclei as endpoints. Piperine was earlier shown to inhibit cytochrome P-450-dependent aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and 7-methoxycoumarin demethylase activities in preparations of these cells with 1/2 maximum inhibition at 30-50 microM (Singh J. and Reen R.K., Current Science, 66, 365-369, 1994). The results of the present study showed that AFB1 inhibited the growth of H4IIE cells with an ED50 of 15 nM. Piperine markedly reduced the toxicity of the mycotoxin. Thus at 100 microM piperine largely restored the rate of growth of the cells. Likewise, piperine reduced the AFB1-induced formation of micronuclei in a concentration-dependent manner. Piperine itself was not toxic to the cells up to a concentration of almost 100 microM. The results suggest, that piperine is capable of counteracting AFB1 toxicity by suppressing cytochromes P-450 mediated bioactivation of the mycotoxin.
In order to determine whether the dietary polyphenols, curcumin, and piperine are able to modulate the self-renewal of normal and malignant breast stem cells, we examined the effects of these compounds on mammosphere formation, expression of the breast stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and Wnt signaling. ...Curcumin and piperine separately, and in combination, inhibit breast stem cell self-renewal but do not cause toxicity to differentiated cells. These compounds could be potential cancer preventive agents.
Parthenolide, an active ingredient of herbal remedies such as feverfew (tanacetum parthenium), mimicked the effects of IkappaBalpha by inhibiting NF-kappaB DNA binding activity and Mn-SOD expression, and increasing paclitaxel-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. These results suggest that active ingredients of herbs with anti-inflammatory properties may be useful in increasing the sensitivity of cancers with constitutively active NF-kappaB to chemotherapeutic drugs.
Parthenolide is one of the main components responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of Feverfew. Recently, parthenolide has shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Here we further studied the mechanism of parthenolide-induced apoptosis by focusing on the role of intracellular thiols and calcium in a human colorectal cancer cell, COLO 205. Parthenolide rapidly depleted intracellular thiols, including both free glutathione (GSH) and protein thiols. Concomitantly, there were dose- and time-dependent increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium levels. Increased expression of GRP78 protein, a marker for endoplasmic reticulum stress was also detected. All these changes preceded parthenolide-induced apoptotic cell death. More importantly, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine, a precursor of GSH synthesis, protected the cells from parthenolide-induced thiol depletion, ROS production, cytosolic calcium increase and completely blocked parthenolide-induced apoptosis. On the contrary, pretreatment of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of GSH synthesis sensitized the cell to apoptosis. These data clearly demonstrate that the intracellular thiols and calcium equilibrium play a critical role in parthenolide-induced apoptotic cell death.
Our study revealed a new mechanism that PN inhibits TNF-alpha-mediated NF-kappaB activation via disrupting the recruitment of the IkappaB kinases (IKK) complex to TNF receptor, which then blocked the subsequent signaling events including IKK kinase activation, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 nuclear translocation, DNA binding and transactivation. Moreover, PN also markedly enhanced and sustained TNF-alpha-mediated JNK activation. A specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125), as well as over-expression of dominant-negative forms of JNK1 and JNK2 abolished the sensitization effect of PN on TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. It is thus believed that suppressed NF-kappaB activation and sustained JNK activation contribute to the sensitization effect of PN to TNF-alpha-mediated cell death in human cancer cells.
Parthenolide (PN) is a major sesquiterpene lactone of feverfew (Tanacetum parthanium) with known anti-inflammatory activity. However, the anticancer effects of PN have not been well studied. In the present investigation, we examined the cancer chemopreventive property of PN using a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches. ...More importantly, we found that impaired AP-1, JNK and p38 signaling led to the sensitization of JB6 cells to UVB-induced apoptosis. Data from our study for the first time confirm the anticancer property of PN in an animal model, and provide evidence that the inhibitory effects on AP-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinases serve as one of the underlying mechanisms for the cancer chemopreventive property of PN.
Fenretinide (N-4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide, 4HPR) is a synthetic anticancer retinoid that is a well-known apoptosis-inducing agent. Recently, we observed that the apoptosis induced by fenretinide could be effectively enhanced in hepatoma cells by a concomitant treatment with parthenolide, which is a known inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). ...Compared with controls treated with an empty vector or with antisense cDNA, the ectopic expression of ANKRD1 led to reduced colony formation and to enhanced apoptotic cell death in hepatoma cells. These results suggest that ANKRD1 and the other genes, whose expressions were substantially modulated by the parthenolide-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB activation, play roles in the enhanced drug-induced apoptosis. In addition, this study suggests that those identified genes may be useful in anticancer strategies against hepatoma.
Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has been implicated in pancreatic tumorigenesis. We evaluated the effect of a novel NF-κB inhibitor, parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the herb feverfew, in three human pancreatic tumor cell lines (BxPC-3, PANC-1, and MIA PaCa-2). Parthenolide inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner with substantial growth inhibition observed between 5 and 10 μmol/L parthenolide in all three cell lines.
Parthenolide is a major sesquiterpene lactone derived from feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) with known anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, the anticancer potential of this compound was suggested. In this study, we determined the effect of parthenolide on proliferation of three human cancer cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549), human medulloblastoma (TE671), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. Cell proliferation was assessed by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The IC(50) value (the concentration of drug necessary to induce 50% inhibition) together with confidence limits was calculated. Parthenolide inhibited proliferation of all three types of cancer cells (A549, TE671, HT-29) and HUVEC with the following IC(50) values (in muM): 4.3, 6.5, 7.0 and 2.8, respectively. Thus, the antiproliferative potential of parthenolide was confirmed.
We have studied the in vitro actions of the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide (PTL) on cells isolated from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Dye reduction viability assays showed that the median LD50 for PTL was 6.2 M (n=78). Fifteen of these isolates were relatively resistant to the conventional agent chlorambucil but retained sensitivity to PTL. Brief exposures to PTL (1–3 h) were sufficient to induce caspase activation and commitment to cell death. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells were more sensitive towards PTL than were normal T lymphocytes or CD34+ haematopoietic progenitor cells. The mechanism of cell killing was via PTL-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in turn in a proapoptotic Bax conformational change, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and caspase activation. Parthenolide also decreased nuclear levels of the antiapoptotic transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B and diminished phosphorylation of its negative regulator IB. Killing of CLL cells by PTL was apparently independent of p53 induction. This is the first report showing the relative selectivity of PTL towards CLL cells. The data here warrant further investigation of this class of natural product as potential therapeutic agents for CLL.
Parthenolide at low micromolar concentration inhibited proliferation of CWR22Rv1 and HUVEC cells, promoted apoptosis and abrogated NFkappaB-DNA binding. Parthenolide downregulated anti-apoptotic genes under NFkappaB control, TRAF 1 and 2, and promoted sustained activation of c-jun-NH2 kinase (JNK). Parthenolide also augmented the in vivo efficacy of docetaxel and restored sensitivity to anti-androgen therapy.
Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis showed decreased nuclear localization of NF-κB and phosphorylated NF-κB protein and subsequently expression of MMP-9, Bcl-xL and Cox-2 in response to parthenolide treatment. These results indicate that parthenolide is a useful in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and acts via inhibition of NF-κB.
The roots, stems and leaves are antiphlogistic, antirheumatic, depurative and tonic[147, 218]. A decoction of the roots and stems is used internally whilst the crushed fresh leaves are used for external applications. The plant is used in the treatment of paralysis, numbness of the four extremities, headache, toothache, spontaneous abscess formation and snake bites. Many plants in this genus contain compounds of interest for their antitumour activity.
Plants for a Future Database
In a search for revertants of multidrug-resistance in cancer cells, a novel (1) and two known (2, 3) sesquiterpene esters were isolated from the root of Celastrus orbiculatus. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 1β,2β-diacetoxy-6α,9α-bis(benzoyloxy)dihydro-β-agarofuran. Compounds 1−3 partially or completely reversed resistance to adriamycin, vinblastine, and paclitaxel of multidrug-resistant KB-V1 and MCF7/ADR cells.
Two new sesquiterpene esters, 1β,8β-diacetoxyl-6α,9α-difuroyloxydihydro-β-agarofuran (1) and 1β-acetoxyl-2β,6α,9α-trifuroyloxydihydro-β-agarofuran (2), together with four known sesquiterpene esters (3−6), celastrol (7), and celaphanol A (8) were isolated from the roots of Celastrus orbiculatus in a search for inhibitors of NF-κB activation and nitric oxide production. Compound 7 was the most active, while compounds 1, 2, 4, and 8 showed moderate inhibition in both NF-κB activation and nitric oxide production.
Novel triterpene (12-oleanene-3beta, 6alpha-diol) from C. hypoleucus significantly inhibited proliferation of RKO cells in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, the IC50 was (12.20 +/- 0.79) microg x mL(-1) at 48 h. Typical apoptotic changes were observed in RKO cells under the fluorescence microscope and the light microscope. DNA ladder was detected on agarose gels at concentrations from 10 microg x mL(-1) to 20 microg x mL(-1) at 48 h. With FCM methods, dose-dependent apoptosis-induced effect was observed in RKO cell line after treatment of triterpene for 48 h, and the apoptotic rates were increased from(2.93 +/- 0.84) % to (50.79 +/- 6.61) % at concentrations from 2.5 microg x mL(-1) to 20 microg x mL(-1). DNA histograms data from FCM analysis showed that the number of cells was obviously reduced during G0-G1 phase and G2-M phase, but not during S phase for RKO cell line after treatment with various concentrations of the triterpene for 48 hours.
Conclusion Both the extracts from Celastrus orbiculatus thunb with ethyl acetate and n-butanol induced the apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells in vitro by a potential mechanism of up-regulating the expression of P53 gene.
Celastrol, an active compound extracted from the root bark of the Chinese medicine “Thunder of God Vine” (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.), was used for years as a natural remedy for inflammatory conditions. Although Celastrol has been shown to induce leukemia cell apoptosis, the molecular target involved has not been identified. Furthermore, whether Celastrol has antitumor activity in vivo has never been conclusively shown. Here, we report, for the first time, that Celastrol potently and preferentially inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome (IC50 = 2.5 μmol/L) and human prostate cancer cellular 26S proteasome (at 1-5 μmol/L). ...Multiple assays using the animal tumor tissue samples from both early and end time points showed in vivo inhibition of the proteasomal activity and induction of apoptosis after Celastrol treatment. Our results show that Celastrol is a natural proteasome inhibitor that has a great potential for cancer prevention and treatment.
Here, we reported that celastrol disrupted Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction in the superchaperone complex to exhibit antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations showed that celastrol blocked the critical interaction of Glu33 (Hsp90) and Arg167 (Cdc37). Immunoprecipitation confirmed that celastrol (10 μmol/L) disrupted the Hsp90-Cdc37 interaction in the pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1. In contrast to classic Hsp90 inhibitor (geldanamycin), celastrol (0.1-100 μmol/L) did not interfere with ATP binding to Hsp90. However, celastrol (1-5 μmol/L) induced Hsp90 client protein degradation (Cdk4 and Akt) by 70% to 80% and increased Hsp70 expression by 12-fold.
The results showed that GA could inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and that the NF-kappa B pathway was simultaneously activated by GA treatment. The minimal cytotoxic dose of celastrol was able to effectively suppress the GA-induced NF-kappa B pathway activation. Following the combined treatment with GA and the minimal cytotoxic dose of celastrol or the dominant negative mutant SR-IκBα, proliferation was significantly inhibited, and the apoptotic rate of Tca8113 cells was significantly increased. Conclusion
The combination of GA and celastrol has a synergistic antitumor effect. The effect can be primarily attributed to apoptosis induced by a decrease in NF-kappa B pathway activation. The NF-kappa B signaling pathway plays an important role in this process. Therefore, combining GA and celastrol may be a promising modality for treating oral squamous cell carcinoma.
The TMZ/CEL combination induced the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, implicating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the treatment effects. Our data suggest that CEL may be effective in sensitizing resistant melanoma cells to the effects of TMZ.
In the first experiment, feeding with AUR at both doses during DEN exposure decreased the mean numbers of GST-P-positive and TGF-alpha-positive EAF/cm(2), and the reduction in the number of TGF-alpha-positive EAF by feeding 500 ppm AUR was statistically significant (p < 0.005). In the second experiment, the 'initiation' feeding with 500 ppm AUR significantly inhibited the incidence (33 vs. 83%, p = 0.000511) and multiplicity (0.67 +/- 1.09 vs. 1.96 +/- 1.85, p < 0.005) of liver cell carcinoma. Also, the 'post-initiation' feeding with AUR at both doses significantly reduced the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (100 ppm: incidence, 15%, p = 0.000006; multiplicity: 0.25 +/- 0.64, p < 0.001; 500 ppm: incidence, 11%, p = 0.000002; multiplicity, 0.26 +/- 0.81, p < 0.001). In addition, AUR feeding reduced cell proliferation and the apoptotic index in liver cell neoplasms.
These findings suggest that the inhibitory effects of auraptene on AOM-induced colon tumorigenesis at the initiation level might be associated, in part, with increased activity of Phase II enzymes, and those at the postinitiation stage might be related to suppression of cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation in the colonic mucosa.
The modifying effects of the organoselenium 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) and the Citrus antioxidant auraptene as dietary supplements on experimental pulmonary metastasis of B16BL6 murine melanoma cells were investigated in an i.v. injection model in mice. ...These results indicate that in mice, diet supplementation with p-XSC and auraptene reduces pulmonary metastasis of B16BL6 melanoma cells and inhibits the growth of these metastatic tumors in lung, in part, by inducing apoptosis. We suggest that these agents, especially p-XSC, may be valuable in preventing metastatic diseases in future studies in the clinic.
Auraptene (AUR), a citrus coumarin derivative, is one of the promising chemopreventive agents against skin, tongue, esophagus and colon carcinogenesis in rodents. We reported previously that AUR suppresses superoxide anion (O2–) generation from inflammatory leukocytes in in vitro experiments. ...This contrasting activity profile between AUR and UMB was rationalized to be a result of their distinct differences in cellular uptake efficiencies, i.e. the geranyloxyl group in AUR was found to play an essential role in incorporation. Thus, our findings indicate that AUR is an effective agent to attenuate the biochemical responsiveness of inflammatory leukocytes, which may be essential for a greater understanding of the action mechanism that underlies its inhibition of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis.
We here investigated the influence of nobiletin and auraptene on prostate carcinogenesis using transgenic rats developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate (TRAP) bearing the SV40 T antigen transgene under control of the probasin promoter and human prostate cancer cells. ... A further experiment demonstrated that growth of androgen sensitive LNCaP and androgen insensitive DU145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cells, was suppressed by both nobiletin and to a lesser extent auraptene in a dose-dependent manner, with significant increase in apoptosis. In conclusion, these compounds, particularly nobiletin, may be valuable for prostate cancer prevention.
Oral administration of AUR by gavage at 50-200 mg/kg body wt dose dependently induced glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in mouse livers without affecting cytochrome P-450 activity. Using 10 coumarin-related compounds, we found that only those coumarins having a 7-alkyloxyl group induced GST, but not cytochrome P-450, activity. The present study presumes that AUR accumulates in the epithelial cells of the small intestine and then gradually permeates into the portal vein. Stable localizability of AUR in the colon and liver may be associated with the induction of GST activity, which is important as the action mechanism for suppression of rodent chemical carcinogenesis.
Dietary administration of auraptene significantly decreased BrdU-labelling index and polyamine concentrations in the oral mucosa (P < 0.05). In addition, auraptene administration significantly increased the activities of GST and QR in the liver and tongue. Although dose-dependent effect was not found, citrus auraptene is effective in inhibiting the development of oral neoplasms induced by 4-NQO. Thus, suppression by the initiation-feeding of auraptene might relate to elevation in the phase II enzymes GST and QR of the liver and tongue, and inhibition occurring during the post- initiation might be related to suppression of increased cell proliferation caused by 4-NQO in the oral mucosa.
Coumarin-related compounds, auraptene and umbelliferone, have been isolated from the cold-pressed oil of natsumikan (Citrus natsudaidai HAYATA), and tested as inhibitors of tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus activation in Raji cells. ...Quantitative analyses using high-performance liquid chromatography showed the occurrence of auraptene not only in both the peels and sarcocarps of natsumikan, but also in those of hassaku orange (C. hassaku) and grapefruit (C. paradisi,) and even in their bottled fresh juice form. These results indicate that auraptene is a chemopreventer of skin tumorigenesis, and implies that suppression of leukocyte activation might be the mechanism through which it inhibits tumor promotion.
Originally posted by JohnnyCanuck
reply to post by IgnoranceIsntBlisss
The bottom line is that the best bet we have in treating cancer is with the current medical practice. To postpone that treatment by using alternative therapies can be a death sentence. By all means, eat well, use preventative measures, but when the doctor says "This radiation treatment will cure you", in my estimation, only a fool will decline and keep sucking back the ol' essiac, et al.
That is the point that fails to come forward in discussions like this, and probably kills more cancer patients than alternative proponents would care to know about.
And if I have made that point, then that's all I need to say.
A 48-h treatment with vinyl acetate (0.05–1 mm) induced a drastic increase in sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and (in first division cells) structural chromosome aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes. The effects were more pronounced in cultures of isolated lymphocytes than in whole-blood cultures. A distinct dose-dependent induction of SCEs similarly occurred in Chinese hamster ovary cells after a 24-h vinyl acetate treatment (0.125–1 mm). A pulse treatment of Chinese hamster ovary cells for 4 h also yielded a clear increase in SCEs, but at higher concentrations (0.3–5 mm). The presence of rat liver S9 mix enhanced the SCE-inducing effect of vinyl acetate in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Gas chromatographic analysis of human whole-blood lymphocyte cultures treated for 10 s-20 min with vinyl acetate (5.4 mm) revealed a rapid degradation of vinyl acetate and formation of acetaldehyde. During the 20-min observation period, no degradation of vinyl acetate or formation of acetaldehyde were observed in complete culture medium without blood, which suggested that the reaction was enzymatic. Acetaldehyde induced SCEs in human whole-blood lymphocyte cultures at concentrations (0.125–2 mm) comparable to those used for vinyl acetate. The results indicate that vinyl acetate induces chromosome damage in cell cultures through enzyme-mediated hydrolysis to acetaldehyde.
Benchmark dose methods were used to estimate the ED10 and LED10 for olfactory degeneration, the precursor lesion thought to drive cellular proliferation and eventually tumor development at excess cellular acetaldehyde levels. A concentration x time adjustment was applied to the benchmark dose values. Human-equivalent concentrations were calculated by using the human PBPK model to predict concentrations that yield similar cellular levels of acetic acid, acetaldehyde, and pHi. After the application of appropriate uncertainty factors, an ambient air value of 0.4 to 1.0 ppm was derived. The biologically based approach supports a workplace standard of 10 ppm.
Vinyl acetate is carcinogenic at portals of entry (nasal cavity and upper gastrointestinal tract). Local metabolism of vinyl acetate produces DNA-reactive acetaldehyde but also produces acetic acid and protons, which contribute to intracellular acidification, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation.
Vinyl acetate is used in the manufacture of many polymers. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require that an inhalation risk assessment be conducted to assess risks to human health from ambient exposures. Vinyl acetate is a nasal carcinogen in rats and induces olfactory degeneration in rats and mice.
Chronic inhalation exposure to vinyl acetate (VA) causes lesions in the nasal cavity of the rat. This effect appears to be related to tissue exposure to either acetaldehyde (AAld) or acetic acid (AA) metabolites of VA or both. ...The dosimetry model was applied to data from a series of experiments designed to measure the uptake and metabolism of VA in the isolated upper respiratory tract of the rat at exposure concentrations ranging from 73 to 2190 ppm. ...In addition, based on measured tissue hydrolysis rates, sufficient acid should be formed by the metabolism of VA to cause significant changes in pHi. VA exposures of 200 and 600 ppm were predicted to result in a pHi of less than 7.2 and 6.7, respectively. This model provides nasal dosimetry estimates needed to develop mechanistically based risk assessment approaches for human exposures to VA vapor.
Vinyl acetate was evaluated for chronic toxicity and oncogenicity in male and female rats and mice in a 104-week study. Target concentrations were 0, 50, 200, and 600 ppm. The study included interim terminations at approximately 53 and 83 weeks and a group whose exposure was terminated at 70 weeks and allowed a 15-week recovery period. Over the course of the exposures, body weight gain was consistently depressed in all 600 ppm groups and in the 200 ppm mice. Except for female rats of the 600 ppm exposure group, recovery animals showed significant improvements in weight gain relative to controls. There were no changes in hematological parameters of either species that could be unequivocally related to treatment. The only effect noted on clinical chemical parameters during the study were decreases in blood glucose in the 600 ppm females. There were no adverse effects on survival in either species. Increases in lung weight were noted in rats and mice primarily in the 600 ppm groups. These changes were associated with bronchial exfoliation, macrophage accumulation, and fibrous plaques and buds extending into the airway lumen, and bronchial/bronchiolar epithelial disorganization. The most significant histopathological changes were noted in the nasal cavity. In the olfactory epithelium of both rats and mice, the main nonneoplastic changes included epithelial atrophy, regenerative effects (squamous metaplasia and respiratory metaplasia of olfactory epithelium), basal cell hyperplasia, and epithelial nest-like infolds. No nonneoplastic changes were observed in the respiratory epithelium of rats, while squamous metaplasia at the naso/maxilloturbinate region was prevalent in mice. Nonneoplastic changes were similar in the recovery groups. Oncogenic responses to vinyl acetate exposure were mainly confined to the nasal cavity in rats and included endo- and exophytic papillomas, squamous cell carcinoma, carcinoma in situ in olfactory regions, and endophytic papilloma in respiratory regions. Squamous cell carcinomas were also found either in areas normally covered by cuboidal epithelium or areas of unknown origin. One squamous cell carcinoma was found in the larynx of a rat of the 600 ppm groups. One squamous cell carcinoma was found in the lung of a mouse of the 600 ppm group. The no-observable- adverse-effect level for all effects was 50 ppm in both species. The tumorigenic response appears to be nonlinear. The nonlinear dose response and the unique nature of the rodent nasal cavity suggest that specific risk extrapolation models should be developed for vinyl acetate.
In rats exposed to the high concentration of VA (600 ppm), Owen (1988) noted lesions at different levels in the respiratory tract. In the histopathology report of Dreef-van der Meulen (1988) on Owen's animals, olfactory epithelial metaplasia/atrophy and nest-like epithelial folds (hyperplastic, regenerative epithelial structures) were noted in the nasal cavity, exfoliation of bronchial epithelium, fibrous intraluminal projections (also termed tags, indicative of regeneration of exfoliated areas) in the bronchi, and pigmented histiocyte accumulation in the lungs. No alterations were noted in the trachea. Data presented in the study showed that these respiratory tract lesions all occurred in the high-exposure animals with increased severity or at incidences significantly greater than in controls (p
Originally posted by gpena
Your Joking right??