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In Shih's experiments a toy soldier was placed 45 centimetres away from a light source, which was split into two beams. One was pointed at the toy and the other at a digital camera. A photon detector was placed near the soldier, able only to record when a photon bounced off.
Photons from the light source constantly travel down both paths made by the splitter, either towards the soldier and the photon detector, or towards the camera. The detector and camera record a constant stream of those photons, and occasionally record a photon at exactly the same time.
When this happens, there is a direct relationship between where one of the photons hit the soldier, and where the other one hits the camera's sensor, says Shih, because of a quantum effect called "two-photon interference".