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In Lyons, France, "admitted" space travellers were killed.
Evidence of perhaps an even earlier possible contact was uncovered by Tschi Pen Lao of the University of Peking. He discovered astonishing carvings in granite on a mountain in Hunan Province and on an island in Lake Tungting. These carvings have been evaluated as 47,000 years old, and they show people with large trunks (breathing apparatus?...or "elephant" heads shown on human bodies? Remember, the Egyptians often represented their gods as animal heads on human bodies.)
DEPARTMENT Of THE AIR FORCE
HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY
USAF ACADEMY, COLORADO 80840
REPLY TO ATTN OF: OI 4 NOV 1970
In reference to your recent inquiry to the Air Force Academy concerning Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO's), the following facts are provided for your information.
The subject of UFO's is examined briefly at the end of an Academy elective course, Physics 370, which usually attracts approximately 20 students per semester. The UFO subject falls under the course objective of discussing all observable or reported physical phenomena occurring from the surface of the sun to the surface of the planets.
When the UFO subject was first included in the course, the subject served, from an academic point of view, to illustrate that when contradictory data are available, the best course is to keep an open mind and search for further data. The subject remains an excellent vehicle to discuss the implications and applications of many basic physical laws to "observed" phenomena.
The source of recent news media stories concerning the study of UFO's at the Air Force Academy was an out-of-date chapter in the course text entitled "Introductory Space Science", a two-volume, 470-page unpublished work printed in a spiral notebook by the Academy for classroom use. The last chapter in the second volume was a 14-page chapter entitled "Unidentified Flying Objects".
When this chapter was written and printed in 1968, the Air Force was still collecting reports of UFO sightings under Project Blue Book and sponsoring the investigation of UFO's by Dr. E. U. Condon of the University of Colorado.
The Condon report was completed in early 1969 with the general conclusion that nothing has come from the study of UFO's in the past two decades that has added to scientific knowledge and that further extensive study of UFO's probably cannot be justified in the expectation that science will be advanced.
During excavations in the “Valley of Stones” in July, 1961, Chi Pen Lao, Professor of Archaeology in the University of Peking, came across an underground cave system. At a depth of 105 feet he found entrances to a labyrinth in the spurs of the Honan mountains, on the south shore of Lake Tung Ting, west of Yoyang. He located passages that undoubtedly led under the lake.
The passage walls were smooth and glazed. The walls of one hall, into which several passages led, were covered with paintings. They represented animals, all fleeing in one direction, driven by men who held “blowpipes” to their lips. Above the fleeing animals, and this is the sensational part of the account as far as I am concerned, flies a shield on which stand men holding weapon-like implements which they are aiming at the animals.
The men on the “flying shield,” says Mr. Chi Pen Lao, wear modern jackets and long trousers. Mr. Lynn thinks that scholars have probably succeeded in establishing the date when the tunnel was built, but news from Red China only emerges sparingly and after long delays. The report of the “flying shield” and the men aiming at the animals from above at once reminded me of a museum piece which had left an indelible impression on my memory. It was the skeleton of a bison (Fig. 44), whose brow had been pierced by a neat shot, and I had seen it in the Museum of Paleontology in Moscow.
The original home of the bison was Russian Asia. The age of my fossil bison was dated to the Neolithic (8000 to 2700 B.C.), when weapons were still made by flaking stones, and the most modern weapon created in that period was the stone axe.
A blow with a stone axe would inevitably have shattered the bison’s skull, but under no circumstances could it have left a bullet hole. A firearm in the Neolithic? In fact, the idea seems so absurd that the experts could dismiss it with a wave of the hand, if it were not for the fact that the Neolithic marksman’s bison trophy is on show in Moscow.
Originally posted by Outrageo
Is the same training administered today? If not - then what replaced it? Nothing? That hardly seems prudent...
(Chapter 33 of "Introductory Space Science" Physics 370
Fall Quarter 1970)
In this text, an attempt has been made to discuss all observable phenomena from the surface of the sun to the surface of the planets, particularly the planet Earth. It must be admitted, however, that some phenomena have been overlooked and that others are not presently explainable. In this latter category we find "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena."
This is a very broad, all-inclusive subject since the "unidentified" depends on the experience and education of the observer--to an aborigine, an airplane may be "unidentified" while to the meteorologist even such rare phenomena as noctilucent clouds and ball lightning may be "identifiable." Thus sightings of "unidentified aerial phenomena" must be reported completely and investigated carefully to determine if they are indeed "unidentifiable." There have been thousands of reports of "unidentified aerial phenomena" in the past quarter century and a number of these reports are still listed as "unidentifiable." This may be due to poor reporting, incomplete investigation, or to deficiencies in our understanding of the atmosphere and the universe at large. The possibility that our scientific knowledge could be increased by study of these phenomena has led several organizations to explore the subject further.
The popular literature uses the more restrictive term "Unidentified Flying Objects" instead of the general "Unidentified Aerial Phenomena." Although there is insufficient evidence that the phenomena are real physical "objects" or indeed that they are "flying", we will adopt the popular terminology to avoid confusion. Consequently we will define an "Unidentified Flying Object" (UFO) as any reported aerial phenomenon or object which is unknown or appears out of the ordinary to the observer.
While there are purported UFO reports dating from ancient times, the subject of UFOs really was thrust upon the American public shortly after World War II when Kenneth Arnold on 24 June 1947 reported seeing nine "saucer like" objects near Mount Rainier. This was the first in a series of UFO reports which has continued to the present. The newly organized U.S. Air Force was assigned the mission of determining if the UFOs represented a threat to the national security. The investigation was conducted under Project Sign, later Project Grudge, and finally Project Blue Book which ended on 17 December 1969.
Because of a rash of UFO reports in 1952 and fears that military communications channels could be clogged by enemy instigated UFO reports, a special scientific panel chaired by the late Dr. H, P. Robertson was established under government sponsorship in January 1953 to study the UFO problem. The panel concluded that there was no evidence in the available data that UFOs were a threat to national security. These scientists recommended that a campaign be conducted to produce better public understanding of the situation and also to remove the aura of mystery surrounding the subject. This latter goal has not yet been completely achieved.
FALL SEMESTER 1970
After this, Project Blue Book continued to receive and evaluate UFO reports, but the conclusions reached were not always accepted by "UFO-logists" and the general public. The Air Force was often accused of trying to cover up the UFO problem and of withholding information allegedly indicating that UFOs are extraterrestrial. Consequently, a panel headed by Dr. Brian O'Brien was empowered to review Project Blue Book in 1966. While this commission reaffirmed that there was no apparent security threat posed by the existence of unexplained UFO reports, it suggested that a detailed study of some of the reports might produce something of scientific value. The commission recommended that a few selected universities be engaged to provide scientific teams for prompt investigation of selected UFO sightings. Consequently, in 1966, the U.S. Air Force sponsored a $500,000 investigation led by Dr. Edward U. Condon of the University of Colorado to make a scientific investigation of UFOs, not necessarily to identify UFOs but only to determine if there is scientific merit in the study of them.
33.2 Hypotheses to Explain UFOs
In any scientific investigation, we establish an hypothesis or hypotheses, collect data, analyze the data in light of our hypotheses and then refute or confirm our hypotheses or conclude that we have insufficient data to do either.
Approximately 6% of the UFO reports collected by Project Blue Book are officially listed as "unexplained." If we propose to "explain" these remaining cases we must first set up a list of possible explanations. There is always the danger in this procedure that the true explanation for a particular event is not contained in the given set of a priori hypo-theses. With this note of caution before us, we adopt a set of hypotheses proposed by Dr. James McDonald of the University of Arizona:
1. Hoaxes, fabrications, and frauds.
2. Hallucinations, mass hysteria, rumor phenomena.
3. Advanced terrestrial technologies.
4. Lay misinterpretations of well understood physical phenomena.
5. Poorly understood physical phenomena.
6. Poorly understood psychological phenomena.
7. Extraterrestrial visitation.
8. Messengers of salvation and occult truth.
Let us examine each of these in light of the data collected over the past twenty-plus years.
1. Hoaxes, fabrications, and frauds. There is no question that some UFO reports are hoaxes, fabrications, and frauds perpetrated by persons playing pranks with candles in plastic cleaning bags, persons faking photographs, persons seeking notoriety or recognition, and practical jokers. The UFO literature is replete with examples of all types. However, confirmed hoaxes are only a small percentage of the total number of UFO reports. Most reports are by reliable witnesses and show no evidence of fabrication or fraud.
2. Hallucinations, mass hysteria, rumor phenomena. There is evidence that UFO reports occur in waves and that a rash of sightings in a localized area may be due to increased public sensitivity to an initial report. Some reports received at these times may indeed be inspired by the increased attention to UFOs and not true sightings at all. However, the large number of multi-observer reports from independent observers, and reports from military personnel, airline pilots, policemen, scientists and other qualified witnesses makes it unlikely that many UFO reports are the results of hallucinations, mass hysteria, and rumor phenomena. Psychologists and sociologists are unable to estimate what portion of UFO reports may be due to such causes but analysis of the credentials of witnesses in most reports would indicate that the number must be small.
3. Advanced terrestrial technologies (e.g. test vehicles, satellites, reentry phenomena, secret weapons). The noted space scientist Arthur C. Clarke has observed that any sufficiently advanced technology will appear indistinguishable from magic. Thus advanced terrestrial technologies are certainly the cause of some reports. The reported characteristics of UFOs do not appear to have changed markedly over the years while man has made great technological progress. Thus while some current UFO reports may be attributable to space vehicle reentries or satellite launches, the reports in the forties and early fifties cannot be attributed to these causes. Similarly, advanced weapon systems in the development and test stages (secret weapons) now would give rise to a different type of UFO report from those of earlier eras. The variety and world-wide distribution of UFO reports make it unlikely that the reports are due to sightings of products of an advanced terrestrial technology.
4. Lay misinterpretations of well-understood physical phenomena (e.g. meteorological, astronomical, optical). From our definition of UFOs it is obvious that a large number of reports will fall in this category. Misidentification of aircraft landing lights, blinking and flashing lights during aerial refueling operations, weather balloons, meteors, movements of the planets Venus and Jupiter, searchlight reflections on low cloud ceilings and lens flares in photographs are a few possibilities. The reader can undoubtedly suggest others and find still more in the UFO literature. In his
article, "The Physics and Metaphysics of Unidentified Flying Object Dr. William Markowitz discusses the UFO problem in light of the currently accepted physical laws. In particular, he considers the following five basic laws:
a. Every action must have an equal and opposite reaction.
b, Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely as the square of the distance between them.
c. Momentum and mass-energy are conserved.
d. No material body can travel at c, the speed of light in free space.
e. The maximum energy which can be obtained from a body at rest is governed by Einstein's famous equation, E = mc2
To date these laws have enabled physicists to predict and control many phenomena for practical purposes. They can also be valuable in analyzing UFO reports. The details in most UFO reports do not cause any conflict with these laws and lead us to conclude that UFOs may well just be misidentified ordinary phenomena. However, some reports seem at variance with one or more of these laws, leading us to question either the reliability of the UFO reports or the reliability of our physical laws. Since our physical laws are more firmly established both in theory and by experiment, the validity of the physical law is usually a more acceptable alternative to the scientist. We must realize, however, that any physical law may be subject to change with the discovery of new evidence.
5. Poorly understood physical phenomena (e.g. rare atmospheric electrical effects, cloud phenomena, plasmas of natural or technological origin). Attempting to explain UFO reports by some poorly understood phenomenon is risky at best, and probably is impossible until the phenomenon is better understood. Lenticular clouds as explanations for certain UFO reports may be on firm grounds, but attempts to explain UFOs in terms of mirages, ball lightning (a sphere-shaped plasma blob usually associated with electrical storms) , atmospheric inversion layers, or anomalous propagation of radar signals are much less tenable. Some UFO reports may be explainable by these phenomena, but it is impossible to make positive identifications based on our present limited understanding of the phenomena. Consequently, all such explanations should be considered only tentative. There may be still other atmospheric phenomena which are observed so rarely that they remain uninvestigated and unnamed.
6. Poorly understood psychological phenomena. Psychologists are the first to admit that there are many aspects of psychic phenomena that have not been adequately explored. Few data are available to determine how these phenomena may relate to the UFO problem, but we must at least allow for the possibility that there may be some effects.
7. Extraterrestrial visitation. Dr. Condon states in the summary of Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects that convincing and unequivocal evidence of extraterrestrial visitation would be the greatest single scientific discovery in the history of mankind. While this may be a slight exaggeration, it at least points out why this hypothesis adds so much excitement and controversy to the UFO problem. Despite numerous UFO reports concerning purported space vehicles and alien visitors, there remains doubt as to the veracity of these reports. Such reports do, however, contain a number of strange elements that are verifiable. One would prefer hard evidence in the form of a tail fin, a jettisoned propulsion unit, a crashed UFO, several good photographs, etc. Such physical evidence does not seem to exist, despite stories to the contrary. Several scientists have concluded that the priori probability of extraterrestrial visitation appears to be exceedingly low in terms of present scientific knowledge. Although no conclusive proof as to the validity of this hypothesis can be drawn from the evidence at hand, a panel of the National Academy of Sciences has concluded that on the basis of present knowledge, the least Likely explanation of UFOs is the hypothesis of extraterrestrial visitations by intelligent beings.
8. Messengers of salvation and occult truth. Certain cults have adopted the belief that the mission of UFOs is spiritual and that all Physical efforts to determine the nature of UFOs must necessarily fail. While such may be the case, evidence to support it is clearly lacking. Further discussion of this hypothesis is beyond the scope of this text.
Having presented the arguments for each of the hypotheses, possible conclusions are now considered. It is apparent that no single hypothesis can account for all UFO reports. Hypotheses 1, 2, 3, and 4 are obviously valid and, as a group, account for a large number of UFO reports. However, the evidence is insufficient to conclude that all UFO reports can be attributed to these causes. Hypothesis 8 is unlikely to yield to any form of scientific analysis, so we eliminate it from further consideration. If hypotheses 5, 6, and 7 are scientifically the most interesting since they offer the possibility of new knowledge about ourselves and our environment. As indicated above, hypotheses 5 and 6 require additional research on poorly understood phenomena before conclusions can be reached as to their bearing on the UFO problem. At this time, there appears to be insufficient evidence available to either confirm or refute hypothesis 7.
One additional note of caution must be included at this point. In most of this chapter, we have discussed primarily the scientific implications of the UFO question. However, the Lorenzens contend that UFOs are primarily an emotional problem, secondly a political problem, and only incidentally, a scientific problem. They feel that when the emotional and political problems have been resolved, the entire UFO problem will yield to scientific investigation.
Is such scientific investigation likely to be conducted? At least one major scientific study has been made. Dr. Condon and his University of Colorado Project ended their Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects in late 1968 with the general conclusion that nothing has come from the study of UFOs in the past two decades that has added to scientific know-ledge and that further extensive study of UFOs probably cannot be justified in the expectation that science will be advanced. This conclusion and the entire report were endorsed by a select panel from the National Academy of Sciences.
Based on the conclusions of the Condon report and its own twenty-year UFO experience, the Air Force terminated Project Blue Book in December 1969 with this final statement, "As a result of investigating UFO reports since 1948, the conclusions of Project Blue Book are (1) no UFO reported, investigated, and evaluated by the Air Force has ever given any indication of threat to our national security; (2) there has been no evidence submitted or discovered by the Air Force that sightings categorized as 'unidentified' represent technological developments or principles beyond the range of present-day scientific knowledge; and (3) there has been no evidence indicating that sightings categorized as 'unidentified' are extraterrestrial vehicles."
Consequently there is presently no official government agency investigating UFO reports. Dr. McDonald and several private UFO investigative agencies have decried alleged inadequacies of the Condon report and Project Blue Book and urge that the entire subject be re-investigated. Specifically, Project Blue Book, during its existence, was criticized for superficial investigation of UFO reports, low level of scientific competence among its personnel, and unreasonable explanations concerning specific UFO reports. Criticisms of the Condor report include the contention that the conclusions reached are not supported by the bulk of the evidence in the report itself and that the firing of two staff members for "incompetence" before the completion of the final report raises questions concerning the objectivity and completeness of the study. While some of the criticism may possibly be justified, it is unlikely that any new official scientific studies will be forthcoming, primarily because the conclusions of the Condon report have been so widely accepted.
The UFO problem must now compete on its scientific merit with all the other pressing scientific problems facing mankind. To receive attention from scientists and the requisite economic support, the potential rewards from UFO research must be shown to be commensurate with the resources expended. Although the Condon committee cautioned that nothing worthwhile was likely to result from such research, it suggested that all of the agencies of the federal government and private foundations should be willing to consider UFO research proposals along with the others submitted to them on an open minded, unprejudiced basis.
from the Lemoore, CA Advance, October 8, 1970
AIR ACADEMY TEXT BOOK URGES MORE STUDY OF UFO SIGHTINGS
by TED HUBBARD
Students at the U.S. Air Force Academy at Colorado Springs are being taught to stop scoffing at the mention of UFO's or "flying saucers" and to keep an open mind on the subject.
This was made clear last Thursday in an interview given by Major Stewart Kilpatrick, deputy Director of Public Information of the Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, to the Lemoore Advance in a lengthy and exclusive phone interview.
The "National Enquirer," a country-wide journal, which claims the "largest circulation of any weekly paper in America," headlined this following statement, "Air Force Academy Textbook Warns Cadets That UFO's May Be Spacecraft Operated by Aliens From Other Worlds," in its Oct. 11 issue. "Because so many of our readers are interested personally in aircraft, The Advance sought to verify what appeared to be exaggerated claims and somewhat on the unbelievable side. This despite the reported sightings of some strange craft over Lemoore by several witnesses a few weeks ago.
Major Kilpatrick, as second ranking officer in public affairs at the Air Academy, is in a position to speak authoritatively for the Air Force. He admitted at once that Plebes are taught from a text entitled "Introductory Space Science, Volume II" and an entire Chapter 33 deals entirely with UFO considerations. He quoted from page 455, that "50,000 virtually reliable people have reported sighting unidentified flying objects."
"This leads us with the unpleasant possibility of alien visitors to our planet," the 14-page chapter continues, "or at least alien controlled UFO's."
According to the Academy text book: "If such beings are visiting the earth, two questions arise: (1) Why haven't they attempted to contact us officially, and (2) Why haven't there been accidents which would have revealed their presence?
"Why no contact? That question is very easy to answer in any of several ways: (1) We may be the object of intensive sociological and psychological study. In such studies you usually avoid disturbing the test subjects' environment. (2) You do not contact a colony of ants - and humans may seem that way any aliens (variation: a zoo is fun to visit, but you don't `contact' the lizards). (3) Such contact may have already taken place secretly, and may have taken piece on a different plane of awareness - and we are not yet sensitive to communications on such a plane."
In releasing this interview in The Lemoore Advance we are well aware that many readers will certainly "raise an eyebrow or two." But Major Kilpatrick insisted the above chapter in the text is not a fairy story. At the end he seemed to go along with the recommendations of the physics text book which advises Air Force officers as follows: "The best thing to do is to keep an open and skeptical mind - and not take an extreme position on any side of the question."
"Introductory Space Science" closes the chapter with the wish expressed that renewed extensive investigation be given to the possibility of UFO's. This will require expenditure of a considerable sum of government funds, it explained, and in the present public attitude of scorn and ridicule whenever "UFO's" are mentioned, such possibility seems almost hopeless the chapter laments. As most people know, the Dr. Eugene U. Condon investigation was closed down by the Pentagon and no present official scientific investigation is now operating in this field. In 1966 we talked with six different Air Force pilots at Travis Air Force Base, who claimed to have seen UFO's but stated they did not dare report them for fear of extreme ridicule. At least in 1970 this Air Force attitude seems to have changed as indicated by Major Kilpatrick interview with The Advance. Lemoore's representative at the Colorado Springs Academy is Steve (Moon) Mullens, former basketball star on the Tiger team, and alumnus of Lemoore High. We are asking him his opinion of his science text's presentation of the so called UFO's.
Originally posted by Outrageo
Come now. Are we to believe that a powerful country like the US with an immense military-industrial machination of limitless resources does not even "consider" the possibility of a potential threat from space? Isn't that their job?
Originally posted by Outrageo
What do they tell astronauts at NASA? How about those lunar travelers? Conspiracy claims aside (the Aldrin and Armstrong 'comments, etc.) - was there absolutely NO TRAINING given to these human space travelers that regardless of how remote, IF they see or encounter 'something' this is how they are to proceed.
Originally posted by mcrom901
reply to post by draknoir2
and how about the fact that they carry guns on board the spacecrafts?
for what purpose? arctic bears.........
Title: RE: concerning the "Unidentified Flying Object Program"
To: Brigadier General W. M. Burgess, USAF Air Defense Command
Author: Colonel George E. Perry, USAF, Directorate of Intelligence.
Date: 23 December 23, 1953
"...for those times where the object is not explainable, it would be well to advise your people to say something on this order. "The information on this sighting will be analyzed by the Air Technical Intelligence Center at Dayton, Ohio," and leave it at that..."