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Medieval Kingdom of Khazaria, 650-1016
Over a thousand years ago, the far east of Europe was ruled by Jewish kings who presided over numerous tribes, including their own tribe: the Turkic Khazars. After their conversion, the Khazar people used Jewish personal names, spoke and wrote in Hebrew, were circumcised, had synagogues and rabbis, studied the Torah and Talmud, and observed Hanukkah, Pesach, and the Sabbath. The Khazars were an advanced civilization with one of the most tolerant societies of the medieval period. It hosted merchants from all over Asia and Europe. On these pages it is hoped that you may learn more about this fascinating culture."
Related Category: Central Asian History
Khazars[khA´zArz] Pronunciation Key, ancient Turkic people who appeared in Transcaucasia in the 2d cent. A.D. and subsequently settled in the lower Volga region. They emerged as a force in the 7th cent. and rose to great power. The Khazar empire extended (8th10th cent.) from the northern shores of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the Urals and as far westward as Kiev. Itil, the Khazar capital in the Volga delta, was a great commercial center. The Khazars conquered the Volga Bulgars and the Crimea, levied tribute from the eastern Slavs, and warred with the Arabs, Persians, and Armenians. Religious tolerance was complete in the Khazar empire, which reached a relatively high degree of civilization. In the 8th cent. the Khazar nobility embraced Judaism, and Cyril and Methodius made some Christian converts among them in the 9th cent. In the 10th cent. the Khazars entered into friendly relations with the Byzantine Empire, which attempted to use them in the struggle against the Arabs. The Khazar empire fell when Sviatoslav, duke of Kiev, defeated its army in 965. The Khazars (or Chazars) are believed by some to have been the ancestors of many East European Jews.
Ashkenaz , eponym of a people perhaps localized in Armenia. He was grandson of Japheth. Gen. 10.3. Ashchenaz: 1 Chron. 1.6; Jer. 51.27. In modern times the term Ashkenazim. refers to the German Jews as distinguished from the Sephardim, the Jews of Spain and Portugal. For the history of the Ashkenazim, see Jews.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright Š 2003, Columbia University Press.
Originally posted by mongoose
That said, the Lost Tribe things is really interesting.. I've heard various theories that are supposed to correlate "Britain" w/ the lost tribe of Ephraim, and "America" w/ the lost tribe of Manassah.. not sure what that means.. maybe it's just more voodoo hocus-pocus nonsense, but it's interesting..
Originally posted by Amadeus
In point of fact, over 90% of Modern Israelis are NOT related by blood AT ALL to ANY of the varoius Israelitish clans (whether you count 10 or 12 or 16) that were in existence 3,000 years ago, and any argument supporting such land claims based on race or blood lines is fallacious.
Originally posted by Amadeus
Curiously, name of the (Tribes of) "Judah" does not even occur in the oldest writings in the Old Testament (e.g. the Song of Deborah) but seems to have been a large "fake tribe" which was later made up of smaller, less politically powerful tribelets.
Dating the earliest Scythians has been a problem since they did not develop their distinctive art style until the 6th century B.C. A. I. Melyukova suggested that the early Scythians were descendants of tribes of the Srubnaya culture who, between the middle of the 2nd millenium B.C. and the end of the 7th century B.C., moved in several waves from the Volga-Ural steppes into the north Black Sea area and assimilated the local Cimmerians. In history, the Scythians was first recorded in the 7th century B.C. as Assyria's ally against the Cimmerians, who had lost their homeland to the Scythians and moved south. The Scythian king, Partatua married an Assyrian princess in 674 B.C. and two nations remained allies. Scythians and Assyrians together conquered the Medes of the Caspian Sea; however the Medes was able to drive the Scythians out of western Asia and back to the Pontic Steppes by the turn of the century.
It may seem strange that an art from the Near East could have traveled so far inland and appeared (as in Luristan ) with no apparent signs of early development (5) in more than one place at about the same time. But a significant point to remember is that both Urartu and Luristan (Media) were at that time within the Assyrian administration. The timing of the appearance of Scythian art coincides with the invasions of the Assyrians into Syria, Phoenicia and the northern kingdom of Israel. Not only were luxury articles carried away as a result of these invasions, craftsmen were deported and put to work in the various Assyrian areas of control. Evidence of this is seen in the flowering of what is called Neo-Assyrian art, the last phase of Assyrian art which is said to have started in the reign of Tiglathpilesar. Another term given by art historians for this new Assyrian style is "Phoenician".(6) It is worth considering that Scythian art (which by its character could carry the name "Phoenician" even more easily) may be evidence not just of the influence of deported craftsmen but of actual population groups deported from the areas of invasion (as was the Assyrian habit when conquering a territory) These groups may have been more than one people of different ethnic origins from the Near East but who had similar or at times indistinguishable art styles.
(Available from Amazon.com)
THE "LOST" TEN TRIBES OF ISRAEL ... FOUND! by Steven M. Collins
The typical reader will find Collins' belief that the Northern Europeans and Anglo Saxon countries are descendants of the Lost 10 Tribes of Israel a bit of a jolt but no matter your secular or religious beliefs this book it worth its weight in gold for its juicy tidbits of history that are usually ignored by conventional historians. Collins links the Saka and the Scythians with the Israelites and the Anglo Saxons and does a very astute job of it. He also writes a revealing chapter on the migrations of the Goths and their relationship to the Parthian empire (which by the way showed some tendancy to use animal style art also).
Those interested in pre- Columbian Old World contacts with America will find his book a further revelation as he relates Barry Fell's discoveries of a Celtic presence in New England to Israelite exploration and trade in conjunction with the Phoenicians.
This book is worth its price just for the bibliography.