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~hypothermia in birds by reducing or destroying the insulation and waterproofing properties of their feathers
~hypothermia in fur seal pups by reducing or destroying the insulation of their woolly fur (called lanugo). Adult fur seals have blubber and would not suffer from hypothermia if oiled. Dolphins and whales do not have fur, so oil will not easily stick to them
~birds become easy prey, as their feathers being matted by oil make them less able to fly away
~marine mammals such as fur seals become easy prey if oil sticks their flippers to their bodies, making it hard for them to escape predators
~birds sink or drown because oiled feathers weigh more and their sticky feathers cannot trap enough air between them to keep them buoyant
~fur seal pups drown if oil sticks their flippers to their bodiesk birds lose body weight as their metabolism tries to combat low body temperature
~marine mammals lose body weight when they can not feed due to contamination of their environment by oil
~birds become dehydrated and can starve as they give up or reduce drinking, diving and swimming to look for food
~inflammation or infection in dugongs and difficulty eating due to oil sticking to the sensory hairs around their mouths
~disguise of scent that seal pups and mothers rely on to identify each other, leading to rejection, abandonment and starvation of seal pups
~and damage to the insides of animals and birds bodies, for example by causing ulcers or bleeding in their stomachs if they ingest the oil by accident.
~poisoning of wildlife higher up the food chain if they eat large amounts of other organisms that have taken oil into their tissues
~interference with breeding by making the animal too ill to breed, interfering with breeding behaviour such as a bird sitting on their eggs, or by reducing the number of eggs a bird will lay
~damage to the airways and lungs of marine mammals and turtles, congestion, pneumonia, emphysema and even death by breathing in droplets of oil, or oil fumes or gas
~damage to a marine mammal's or turtle's eyes, which can cause ulcers, conjunctivitis and blindness, making it difficult for them to find food, and sometimes causing starvation
~irritation or ulceration of skin, mouth or nasal cavities
~damage to and suppression of a marine mammal's immune system, sometimes causing secondary bacterial or fungal infections
~damage to red blood cells; organ damage and failure such as a bird or marine mammal's liver
~damage to a bird's adrenal tissue which interferes with a bird's ability to maintain blood pressure, and concentration of fluid in its body
~decrease in the thickness of egg shells
~damage to fish eggs, larvae and young fish
~contamination of beaches where turtles breed causing contamination of eggs, adult turtles or newly hatched turtles
~damage to estuaries, coral reefs, seagrass and mangrove habitats which are the breeding areas of many fish and crustaceans, interfering with their
~tainting of fish, crustaceans, molluscs and algae; interference with a baleen whale's feeding system by tar-like oil, as this type of whale feeds by skimming the surface and filtering out the water
~and poisoning of young through the mother, as a dolphin calf can absorb oil through it's mothers milk.