Unquestionably this is the wackiest subtopic, but just for completeness it must be mentioned. It's very interesting stuff, really. It is the other
solution for the origins of UFOs, without employing saucers with interstellar drives or time machines, and has been with us for centuries. On the
surface, Hollow Earth sounds insane and when I first came across it I dismissed it just as I dismissed the Flat Earth hypothesis (which it is often
paired with!). Yet it still began resurfacing time after time in UFO lore so I decided to get to the bottom of the situation--push aside all the bull#
(and there's Lots of that here, witness for yourself: www.hollowearthnetwork.com...
aligned with everything from money-making scams to fast and
furious scripture recital!)--and properly research it. Dismissing at least one hypothesis I found it be be fascinating and one of those "If it's
real, it's the biggest cover-up in the history of cover-ups" stories...
Basically there are three distinctly different Hollow Earth paradigns. One is clearly false, one is potentially true, and one is so mind-bogglingly
weird that if it is true our entire perspective on the universe will have to change (not to mention historical revisionism). I'm saving that one, the
largest and grandest, for last. The first is attributed to Cyrus Teed back in 1869 and essentially theorizes that we live on the inside of a sphere
rather than on the outside. He called it Cellular Cosmology and founded a religion around it named Koreshian Unity. This makes for a very small and
cozy "universe" with our sun literally in the center, and the stars in the sky, moon, and planets...open to re-interpretation. Yes, this is long
before the Moon landing and interplanetary probes and satellites.
Today only a madman would believe such a thing (again, it's on par with the Flat Earth), and Adolf Hitler believed it or at least was considering it.
The second Hollow Earth hypothesis is simply that a large portion of the Earth (perhaps from crust to near-core) consists of chambers and tunnels,
some of which of artificial origin. Variations on this theory date back to Edmond Halley in the 17th Century (the same guy the comet is named after)
who proposed various concentric shell layers (each rotating independently at different speeds) as one descended, with atmospheric shells and magnetic
fields. Leonhard Euler, a Swiss mathematician of the 18th Century, believed the inside of the Earth to be a single hollow sphere lit by a central sun
600 miles wide. But the overall theme of this second theory is that there's plenty of room down there to house whole cities. As such--rotating
spherical shells and magnetic fields aside--it remains unproven. You'll recall that I mentioned a vast network of man-made tunnels honeycombed
throughout the Earth and you recall that many people have legends of their ancestors originating from tunnels or otherwise coming out of the ground.
UFOlogists connect them with lost civilizations and UFOnauts, suggesting they are the origin points of the saucers, or the location of
extraterrestrial bases. Furthermore the poles are by no means the only locations of "openings" to the "interior" for there have been stories of
cave entrances all around the world, and people who go in and never come out. And strange beings who have been spotted near such entrances. We are
left with the question of where the UFOnauts are coming from: across limitless space, across time itself, across dimensions...or from right under our
feet? The first UFO "flaps" coincide with the detonation of the first atomic bombs--a threat to someone living With us on our own planet for sure.
They would want to investigate. Visitors from a distant planet wouldn't give a damn and it would be more coincidence...
The primary Hollow Earth theory dates back to 1818 and was first proposed by John Symmes and "refined" in later years. It's about the Earth being a
hollow shell with openings at the poles. At the center of the sphere is a small sun, lighting a Koreshian-like inner world with the inner shell being
much like our own "surface" habitat. Unlike Teed's religion, we live on the outside of the sphere and as such this is an extension of spherical
Earth. The polar holes are not holes as such but very gradual, sloping concave openings. They used to be the dead center locations of the Earth's
axis of rotation when it formed billions of years ago. After many cataclysmic changes and axial shifts they are no longer centered on the axis of
spin. The bulk of Earth's gravity is in the outer shell, some 600-800 miles thick, therefore one could conceivably travel along its surface into the
inner Earth without realizing it, as many explorers reportedly have done (well, at least into the lip). You would not "fall off" because gravity is
in the shell. Rather like ants climbing through the hole of a doughnut, the circular concavity being the same as a polar opening. The very middle of
this shell would theoretically be the center of gravity, zero gravity. Basically this doesn't differ that much from the traditional paradign of
Earth's layout: take out the mantle and replace it with an inner atmospheric layer, thicken the crust and allow for inner lakes and oceans ("as
above, so below"), and the liquid lava core is replaced with an inner sun (plasma instead of liquid).
The auroras have long figured into Hollow Earth lore. Charged particles trapped in the magnetosphere from the solar wind, they light up the night
skies with colors. There's two of them, one at each pole, the Aurora Borealis and the Aurora Australis. On the surface, it seems a straight forward
plasma effect, but there's much more to it. Though on opposite ends of the planet, the two aurorae pulse in perfect sync with one another yet are not
physically connected. The auroras can sometimes be heard on the ground despite being 60 miles distant in the sky and the atmosphere should be too thin
to conduct sound waves. Why should the outer most planets, so distant from the sun's solar winds, have auroras?
Some scientists have stated that the sun's solar wind is insuffient to power or energize the auroras. One step beyond that, some scientists have said
that the auroras seem to eminate From the surface of Earth like a plasma fountain. Venus has no magnetic field, so why does it have an aurora? More to
the point, where do they fit in here? Well, according to the Hollow Earth theory of old, the auroras are reflections from the inner sun lighting up
the sky above. Yeah it sounds wild and wacky but not to be dismissed so lightly. Again, it's as though some form of particle streams are being
emitted from the Earth which energizes these light shows. Linked to a common inner sun, this would account for both Northern and Southern Lights
pulsing in perfect synchronization and explain what they're doing on worlds far distant from our sun. In addition, Earth's magnetic field would be
linked through this central sun and the auroras. Fluxuations are caused by a myriad number of atmospheric conditions (between our atmosphere and an
inner atmosphere). In fact it would explain all of the above.
William Reed wrote 'The Phantom of the Poles' in 1906, based upon information supplied through polar explorations up to that point. Hollow Earth
Theory answers the following questions: Why is the earth flattened at the poles? Why have the poles never been reached? Why does the sun not appear
for so long in winter near the supposed poles? Why does the compass refuse to work when drawing near the supposed poles? Why are meteors constantly
falling near the supposed poles. What causes the great quantities of dust constantly found in the Arctic Ocean. What produces the Aurora Borealis?
Where and how are icebergs formed? What causes tidal waves? What causes colored snow in the Arctic region? Why are the nights so long in the polar
regions? What causes the great ice-pressure in the Arctic Ocean during still tide and calm weather? Why is the ice filled with rock, gravel, and
In 1914, Marshall B. Gardner built a model of the Hollow Earth and patented it (# 1,096,102). It was preceded by his book 'A Journey To The Earth's
Interior or Have The Poles Really Been Discovered?' written independently of Reed's book.
Both of these books are very intelligently developed, again, independently of one another. Many more books would follow, some being compilations of
old myths and religions, as well as fictitious stories.
I won't delve into all of the polar mysteries, just some of the hotter ones with emphasis on the North Pole. What I will mention are enormous
discrepancies in measurements encountered by polar explorers, with claims that they "missed" the poles or even covered-up that they ventured there.
Frederick Cook in particular was heavily discredited, his claims of being the first to reach the North Pole viciously knocked-down. All remedied if we
assume a concave aperture "lip" which turns inwards.
The Arctic is essentially an ice-covered sea, but many early explorers have sworn there's a continent there, thus the great rise in temperature and
birds flying North as winter sets in, and the fall of black dust which convinced many that at least a volcano existed there. In the early 1800s, the
Russians claimed a vast land named Sannikov Land existed there and was recorded on maps. Many reputable explorers in the 19th Century had sighted it
in the distance, but by the 20th Century it was struck from maps. The American follow-up was even more famous in 1906. This continent named Crocker
Land first seen by Peary and like Sannikov Land, the explorers swore they saw it, clear and sharp as could be. It was also struck from later maps. For
even more fun, Frederick Cook named a mass of land he spotted (and photographed) in the distance as Bradley Land in 1909. It, too, was struck from the
maps as imaginary. Except, probably because he photographed it, Cook was viciously attacked and called an outright liar. The history books today claim
the "forged" photo was actually taken near Axel Heiberg Island... We're now supposed to believe that these lands were all mirages, optical
illusions of some sort, despite being encountered by different teams of explorers, at different times, in the same general area! Seems to me they they
are referring to one and the same "land mass" or whatever looks like one from a distance. But all of these expeditions consisted of competent,
trained professionals not amateurs on some sight-seeing vacations. Captain MacMillan described it as taking up at least 120 degrees of the horizon and
firmly believed in its existence to lead a 1914 expedition there. He never found it. Hollow Earth believers claim it's an optical illusion of sorts,
a reflection, is the best guess but a reflection of a real land mass--the polar opening itself. When I was young, novelty stores like Spencer sold a
clever little optical illusion gizmo which was nothing more than a highly-polished concave mirror mounted in a decorative base. Place a coin or any
small object within this concave mirror and it would reflect it with perfect detail onto the surface above the mirror. Decades later a couple of
eye-catching arcade video games made use of this technique to simulate projected "holograms" (Time Traveller is one).
I do believe this is precisely what these explorers were perceiving, provided that there's truth to the existance of a polar opening.
Crocker Land manifests itself only under the right conditions of course, usually around the mid-point of the year when it's not extremely cold, but
just right to create a form of temperature inversion in the air above the region. And it's only seen when you wander beyond 82 degrees latitude. I
plotted their locations on an Arctic map. Crocker Land and Bradley Land are perfectly in line with 105 degrees West, and extending that they're in
line with Sannikov Land (which is just beyond the De Long Islands) which could pass for the Northern rear tip of Bradley Land. All "fictitious" of
course! What really blew me away though is when I pulled up the vitual globe program Marble. You see, right smack where Crocker and Bradley Lands are
supposedly located is a red dot labelled "North Magnetic Pole." What are the Odds of all these "mirages" triangulating together? Coincidence my
ass! OK, even if we dismiss Hollow Earth hocum, maybe this is not a gateway to the inside of the Earth but there's sure something hiding there, be it
a volcano, land mass or island. Something. Extra odd: my plotted coordinates are on the Opposite Side of the North Pole where certain internet Hollow
Earther gurus swear to be the "real" polar opening. Why the discrepancy? Then again, these Hollow Earther nuts are trying to "finance" an
expedition there, charging people ridiculous sums of money on what would potentially be a one-way trip.
There are Wooly Mammoth remains up there... The farther North you travel through Siberia, the greater the number, and the more intact and fresher the
meat. Some explorers even dined on the meat of these ancient beasts--thousands if not millions of years old--and some bellies even contained
undigested plant life. Various theories have been proposed to explain how these pakiderms were "flash frozen." The Hollow Earthers believe that just
within the Inner World exists a kind of Jurassic Park of long-extinct (to us) but living, breathing dinosaurs. Some get curious and venture outwards,
become lost, get stuck on glaciers, drift southward down on our surface world... I'd like to see someone carbon-date one of these dead guys, but as
far as I know it's not been done. The results might be rather unsettling and unacceptable.
There are tons of myths, folklore, stories, pulps--you name it--built around the Hollow Earth Theory. The Tibetans believe in Agharta (and Shamballa,
it's leading city), another name for the Hollow Earth, where the King of the World resides. Studying it though, it appears to be something of a
distortion owing to Helena Blavatsky's translation and disseminating of Tibetan beliefs. Hitler's vision of Hyperborea about ancient Arctic Aryan
gods fits in here, being located at the pole where humanity was first "seeded" from the interior. That's what the occult Thule Society was all
about (as in Ultima Thule). Eskimos and Mongolians both believe they came from the Inner Earth through polar openings, if Hollow Earthers are to be
believed (and some believe their slit-eyes were developed for protection against the constant sunshine of the Inner sun!). The Vril Society (another
occult group favored by der late Fuher) is based around the story of "The Coming Race" by Lord Litton about an advanced society of underdwellers and
a source of power called Vril. But again, just a fictitious story, yet Hollow Earthers believe Litton was in-the-know about certain occult and
"hidden knowledge" aspects. There's an urban legend about Rainbow City, an abandoned complex at one of the poles once inhabited by a super-advanced
civilization. Likewise all of the Shaver Mysteries fit in here about the underground Deros and the havoc they create for the surface dwellers through
energy beams (but this is the stuff of paranoid schizophrenics!). Richard Shaver was a psychotic contributor to Amazing Stories magazine its editor,
Ray Palmer, a mutant. Entertaining reading? Yeah. Believable? No--but more so than most religions. All those mind-boggling underground tunnels tie
into the Hollow Earth, presumably bridging both worlds. If you recall the Giants cover-up I mentioned, there's a small book called "The Smokey God"
which ties down the origin place of Giants to the Inner Earth: presumably they made their way to the surface through the poles and ultimately their
descendants which managed to survive on our surface Earth in 1g gravity became smaller stature beings. Presented as a true account by Willis George
Emerson of a Hollow Earth journey back in 1908, it would at least present a solution to the mysterious origin of Giants if true (and consequently
provide the answer as to Why there's a Giant cover-up: as it could conceivably lead investigators to their place of origin?).
There are spiritualists, bull# artists, and religious nutcases who believe and worship the Hollow Earth in all its glory. Psychics who have out of
body experiences travel into the Hollow Earth. People who quote scriptures from the bible that "prove" it's existence, right down to the Lost
Tribes of Isreal being deposited there by God. And--you probably saw this one coming--the Hollow Earth being the actual location of Eden. More like
hollow brain. Much like with UFO lore in general, you have to discard the utter bull#. It seems to go with the territory of big, bold conspiracy tales
and cover-ups. In fact one could ponder whether or not the bunk was put there deliberately as a red herring... If there is some truth to be found, why
not hide it in a filthy #house where few would dare tread? The question is whether or not there is any truth in it at all. We certainly cannot deny
that there are miles of underground tunnels, and they're not natural lava tubes, and once-inhabited underground cities are a proven fact. To this
very day there are claims of secret excavations and discoveries in the arctic regions... Of course fiction writers are in love with the poles because
they're vast, unexplored regions where out-of-this-world tales can be set. "The Thing" is but one popular example made into successful movies.
How would this "crazy" hollow scenario come about, being scientific about it of course? Basic vortex theory. Essentially everything in the universe
is spinning. Stars orbit around a galactic core in our galaxy. Stars have planets which orbit about their suns. It may even extend down to the atomic
and subatomic levels. If more matter was present there would be definite shells--or if viewed from a different time frame they would appear shelled.
Now consider the formation of a planet: gas and particulate matter orbiting around a star forming an accretion disc which breaks off into an
individual, spinning body forming its own accretion disc. Nebulae are proto-planets with shell-like structures and central stars, and they too are
spinning. An expanded ball of super-hot whirling gas gradually contracts as it cools. Matter is spinning around a central core with centrifugal force
building a solid shell of the heavier elements around its perimeter, becomes more dense over time. Eventually an inner hollow region is formed around
a central sun (or an original "burning ember" so to speak). The shell is at its most dense at the equator and least dense at the poles, thus polar
openings are present. They are present from the whirlpool (vortex) effect but extended across a 3-D body in space. The end result is an 8,000 mile
hollow spheroid with 1,400 mile diameter polar openings. Suspended (I should say gravitically-locked) at its center is a sun some 600 miles in
diameter. Think about it the next time you flush your load down a toilet, and watch it spiral in. What we have here is a Hollow Earth and if all
planets follow this formation formula then all planets in the universe are equally hollow, perhaps even suns. Life might even begin on the Inside of
these spheres and work their way to the outside through polar openings, provided that there's a breathable atmosphere on the outside. For all we
know, all the "inhospitable" planets in the solar system might be teaming with alien life and civilizations Within... But unlike us, they can't
live on the surface of their worlds nor have they ever colonized the surface. It might almost lend credibility to those 1950s bull# tales of visitors
from Mars and Venus--who look just like us--taking guys on flying saucer rides. But I'm not that gullible and neither are you. Yet I'll direct you
to read the famous astronomer Percival Lowell's observations on the Martian pole and how it changes. Almost as though he's looking down Into
something, wondering about water vs. carbon dioxide, and the atmospheric pressure and temperature on Mars... At one point the usual cloud cover of the
polar icecap parted and Lowell was astonished by dazzling starlight shining out. Lowell is not alone in his observations! And the pole is so bright
and Yellow at night as though it's self-illuminating from Within, or so say the astronomers. Around 2001 a team tried to wrap it all up using
computer modeling to predict these flares as being nothing more than sunlight reflecting off of ice crystals or some such (a variation on the sundog
phenomena). They were perhaps partly successful, though for only one tiny region on Mars at one time.
The Hollow Moon Theory predates spaceflight, like the Hollow Earth Theory, and is also the stuff of old science fiction novels as we all know. It's
about our moon being either entirely hollow within or partially. Several members of the Soviet Academy of Science claim that the Moon is an alien
artifact, a spaceship, to account for numerous anomalies. Disregarding this for now, the Russians have long believed the Moon to be hollow or
containing a lot of empty space within. When NASA crashed the lunar landing craft, the Moon rang like a bell for hours. Echoes. Speaking of which, the
Earth does the same thing following quakes...
Today's scientists are quick to knock-down Hollow Earth Theory, but ironically they can't. Conventional gravitation theory says that hollow planets
can't exist because their mass would be too low, thereby Earth would have a much lighter gravity. True enough, except this assumes a low-mass outer
shell. What if it's mass is greater to account for the disproportion? There's no problem here, as we Don't know how mass is distributed throughout
a planet's volume. Likewise, according to Newton, the inside of a hollow sphere would have zero gravity. However, the Earth is by no means a perfect
sphere (it bulges at the equator and is relatively flat bordering at the poles), and if we have openings to the surface ("holes" in the sphere), the
Newtonian theory doesn't fully apply. In addition, since the Earth is still spinning it possesses centrifugal force within. Add these two together
and you've got gravity inside the sphere, though perhaps not much. It might in fact form a low-gravity environment--ideal for Tall growth. (You might
want to backtrack on my ramblings to my comments on Giants).
Speaking of gravity, it's still very much a mystery which is why Dark Matter had to be invented as a kludge to "compensate" for our inadequate
math. Over a century ago a joint American-French team decided to gather some hard data to help calculate Earth parameters. They dropped a pair of
identical mile-long plumb bobs down shafts in the Tamarack Mines.
The idea being that if they measured their distances apart they'd be able to accurately determine Earth specs from these figures. Plumb bobs always
point down to the center of mass, our planet's core, so the two should be slightly closer to one another at the bottom of the well. They weren't,
they were farther Apart. Drafts, magnetic fields and other variables were ruled out and the experiment was repeated over and over again with the same
results. They indicate that Earth's center of mass is not in the core, rather, it's above it in the opposite direction or elsewhere. Maybe in the
Earth's Crust? It's funny how it's taken nearly a century for a suitable solution to surface: according to recent online math-nerd sites, you have
to take into account centrifugal force for it work out in favor of the plumb bobs falling toward the Earth's center. Why this was not considered all
those years ago is anyone's guess.
Ah, the Earth is full of magma and lava; it's volcanic. Nothing down there. Hollow Earth Theory fails--or does it? How far down does this go, to the
core? It's not proven. As one of my favorite Hollow Earth nuts says, just because a guy has a pimple on his face full of puss doesn't mean the
inside of his entire head is full of puss! In actuality, lava doesn't come from the core but from approximately 20 to 30 miles down, or so it's been
extrapolated. Beyond a few miles down, nobody knows what it's like there. All scientists can do is extrapolate. The most in-depth analysis is based
around the science of Seismology. Unfortunately, to quote another Hollow Earther, this is like trying to determine the contents of a locked room by
listening at the door with a stephescope! Theories can be devised but they're based upon very little solid evidence. Seismic waves do this and do
that, flow this way and that way. In fact according to traditional models of the Earth's interior, deep earthquakes are impossible because of
increased pressure--yet they occur despite this, meaning there's something wrong with that model.
Finally, if there are these large polar holes, how come nobody's found them? We have satellites and airplanes these days, and our planet is fully
mapped on Google Earth. It's not quite that simple, I am informed. First, satellites only image regions they're programmed to image, are
strategically positioned, and today's software edits out "erroneous data." Our photos from space are "flat" and because of the very gradual
inward curve of the aperature it's impossible to visually detect, much like how we don't see the Earth being round, spheroid actually. Again note
that the Earth's "tops" are sometimes called polar Basins (look that word up!). Secondly, there are curiously some no-fly zones over the polar
regions. The idea being that any object flying directly over a hole would de-orbit as openings are massless abysses. Presumably there are a few people
in-the-know about this scenario (i.e. super cover-up), and the military discourage talks about it beyond polar airline pilots. Thirdly, Google Earth
and other geo satellite mapping services edit out many things, such as Area 51 (for security reasons). Fourthly, If heat rises outwards from within
the planet, and cold air is above, clouds and fog are created. Many explorers (pilots) have encountered the strangest fog formations at the poles...
Fifthly, if there really is an advanced civilization in the Earth and the poles are the natural gateways within, chances are they'll have advanced
technology in place to hide such entrances, be it holography, stealth imaging...or maybe they've even managed to "plug" the holes. Perhaps Large
polar openings don't exist on our world but, rather, small polar openings do. If you want to fantasize about advanced tech, why not go all-out
Hollywood and imagine CGI-like holes which can iris-open and close when required!
Something else to ponder, if we can imagine flying saucer bases on the inside shell of Hollow Earth. Here's how you launch them to the surface
world--without even taking a polar opening... Imagine a bottomless lake--no, make that a bottomless Ocean, or section thereof. What I mean to say is
one of those trenches at the bottom of our ocean drops all the way down through an inner-Earth ocean. A UFO launched from an Inner Earth Base need
only dive into this inner ocean, accelerate to velocity sufficient to traverse the center-of-gravity midpoint zone of the shell (again, this is a
"bottomless trench" 100% water) and emerge through the bottom of our ocean, perhaps to continue accelerating skywards. This is becomes another one
of those so-called Underwater UFO cases of which many have been sighted. Perhaps there's even a "shockwave" type effect by breaking the
"boundaries" which reverberates across the ocean creating the infamous Rogue Waves. Perhaps this "bottomless sea" region is located in the Bermuda
Triangle. Pure speculation on my part, but keeping with Hollow Earther imagination.
I put my Hollow Earth research aside around the close of the 20th Century. It wasn't until our latest generation of interplanetary probes began to
transmit back full spectrum scans of the planets that I dived right back in. You see, what was predicted by Hollow Earth theorists was kind of being
confirmed by these scans of the other planets. Near the poles of these planets were large, circular regions inexplicably hotter than any other region
on the planets, be they gas giants or outer, frozen Pluto. In other words, exactly what one would expect for polar openings. Or perhaps I should say
where the crust is thin enough to allow "leakage" of inner sun heat to the outer world. Then there are anomalies like polar auroras, so distant
these planets are from the sun's solar wind. And ice was detected on Mercury's pole--the closest and hottest planet to our sun. Phobos, a moon of
Mars, is reportedly at least one-third hollow inside according to a 2008 flyby. Many conspiracy nuts get stirred up by all this and are quick to
scream about cover-ups and how moons are artificially-created constructs by aliens. The same category of people (leading the way is Richard Hoagland!)
are quick to believe and perpetuate crap like Cydonia's "face" on Mars and, indeed, anything and everything unusual is taken as "proof" of
extraterrestrial activities. There's money to be made in writing books.