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The striking iridescent colours displayed on beetles, butterflies and other insects have long fascinated both physicists and biologists, but mimicking nature's most colourful, eye-catching surfaces has proved elusive. This is partly because rather than relying on pigments, these colours are produced by light bouncing off microscopic structures on the insects' wings.
Because of their shape and the fact that they are made up of alternate layers of cuticle and air, these structures produce intense colours. Using a combination of nanofabrication procedures -- including self-assembly and atomic layer deposition -- Kolle and his colleagues made structurally identical copies of the butterfly scales, and these copies produced the same vivid colours as the butterflies' wings. According to Kolle: "We have unlocked one of nature's secrets and combined this knowledge with state-of-the-art nanofabrication to mimic the intricate optical designs found in nature."
Originally posted by endisnighe
I know a really good anti counterfeit technique-
Wilfried Hörner, the head of the gold foundry, shows a 500 gram bar (16.0755 troy ounces) received from an unidentified bank. The bar had the right physical dimensions to be an authentic gold bar, but one of the Heraeus employees suspected something funny. After the bar was cut in half, you can see that the inside is tungsten, with only a coating of gold on the outside.
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Rumors about fake gold bars circulating around central banks, ETF's, commodities exchanges, and government vaults have been circulating around for a while. Even the LBMA's certified 'gold delivery bars' are rumored to be turning up fake.