Originally posted by Harte
These mummies were almost certainly contaminated in Europe, somehow.
The only mummies that test positive spent some time there.
Originally posted by Harte
However, the fact that only mummies that spent time in Europe test positive must be explained.
How is it that only these Egyptians managed to get South American coc aine?
By insinuating that this is somehow a « European contamination problem », you must take the following into account:
There is no common origin for all « European » Egyptian mummies . The way these coc aine tainted mummies have reached various museums in
Germany, England and France during different time periods, from different dynasties, the way they have been transported, handled, cared for, etc, it
is difficult to find a common denominator not found in any (North) American, Asian or Australian museum.
The mummies do not originate from a particular location in Egypt, in fact coc aine has been found in Sudanese mummies as well.
Contamination is of course the prime suspect in explaining this enigma, but studies performed by Svetla Babalova, Franz Parsche, W. Pirsig, Andreas
Nerlish and also Rosalie David at the Manchester Museum shows this is not the case, contamination can practically be ruled out as cause.
Balabanova has also tested south American mummies (from cultures well known for their coca and tobacco use), and found (strangely) concentrations
similar to the Egyptian ones. Larry Cartmell, Clinical Laboratory Director at the Valley View Hospital in Aida, Oklahoma and amateur archeologist, has
been testing South American mummies for nicotine extensively. Cartmell has also tested Egyptian mummies and found nicotine levels similar to
Balabanova's results. The levels are rather high and it is reasonable to believe mummies in both South America and Egypt were treated with nicotine
during the embalming process.
Andreas Nerlich et. al. (1995), in a study evaluating the tissue pathology of an Egyptian mummy dating from approximately 950 B.C., found
coc aine, nicotine and cannabis compounds in several of the mummy's organs. They found the highest amounts of nicotine and coc aine in
the mummy's stomach, and the cannabis traces primarily in the lungs. Very similar results were again found in yet another study by Parsche and
Nerlich. We can therefore speculate that the Cannabis was inhaled while the coca and tobacco was ingested.
As to why only European researchers have produced these results, there is no clear answer, but my personal guess is academic fear of ridicule. When
Babalova first published her results she was violently attacked and to some extent ridiculed.
In 1995 Franz Parsche published an extensive study on pulmonary bleeding in a 3,000-year-old Egyptian mummy, and the analysis found significant traces
of coc aine, nicotine, and cannabis compounds in the body. The scientific community chose to ignore the results, he was in fact stonewalled by
foreign colleagues who by now had concluded that something must be rotten in the state of German toxicology. An independent research group with access
to Egyptian mummies world wide could perhaps shed more light on this enigma.