It looks like you're using an Ad Blocker.
Please white-list or disable AboveTopSecret.com in your ad-blocking tool.
Some features of ATS will be disabled while you continue to use an ad-blocker.
Based in Geneva, Switzerland, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is an independent humanitarian organisation, whose role is defined in the Geneva Conventions.
The Red Cross Movement is not a political or religious organisation. This neutrality means that we can reach and offer unconditional help to people in need whoever and wherever they are.
Often we work in countries where other organisations cannot or will not work. We cross front-lines in times of war to help conflict victims and visit prisoners of war on both sides. We can only do this life-saving work if we are understood to be a completely neutral, independent organisation. Put simply, our neutrality saves lives.
We can’t let down people in need by compromising our neutrality. That is why we do not align ourselves with any particular political cause or religious creed anywhere in the world.
And that is why we do not sell or display religious items, of any faith, in our shops. As an organisation, the Red Cross cannot be seen to be religious or political because to do so might jeopardise the access we have to people in need.
(from the British Red Cross website)
The ICRC is governed by an Assembly, an Assembly Council (a subsidiary body with certain delegated powers) and a Directorate (the executive body). Both the Assembly, with up to 25 co-opted members of Swiss nationality, and the Assembly Council are chaired by Dr. Jakob Kellenberger, Ph.D, who has been President of the ICRC since 2000. He is assisted by two Vice-Presidents, Mr. Olivier Vodoz and Ms. Christine Beerli.
The Directorate, with five members, is chaired by the Director-General, Mr. Yves Daccord.
(from ICRC website)
In 1663 Thompson was granted three other tracts: Duddington Manor, 100 acres; Duddington Pasture, 300 acres; and New Troy, 500 acres. In 1670 he leased his tracts for 1,000 years to Thomas Notley, who in 1671 patented them as Cerne Abbey Manor. At his death in 1679, his godson Notley Rozier inherited the manor. In 1716 it was again given its orginal name of Duddington Manor; and in the last decade of the 18th century, the manor (then, by intermarriage, owned mainly by the Carroll and Young families) was the largest and most valuable estate within what then became the District of Colombia.
Immediately north of Thompson's New Troy tract (which extended far north of what is now called Capitol Hill) was a tract called Scotland Yard, Patented to Captain Robert Troope in 1663, or earlier; and immediately north of Troope's land lay the tract known as Room, or Rome, granted to Francis Pope in 1663.
Accipe thiaram tribus coronis ornatam, et scias te esse Patrem Principum et Regum, Rectorem Orbis, in terra Vicarium Salvatoris Nostri, cui est honor et gloria in sæcula sœculorum.
Receive the tiara adorned with three crowns and know that thou art Father of Princes and Kings, Ruler of the World, Vicar of Our Savior on earth, to him be the honor and glory forever and ever.
“The Pope’s authority is unlimited, incalculable; it can strike, as Innocent III says, wherever sin is; it can punish every one; it allows no appeal and is itself Sovereign Caprice; for the Pope carries, according to the expression of Boniface VIII, all rights in the Shrine of his breast. As he has now become infallible, he can by the use of the little word, “orbi,” (which means that he turns himself round to the whole Church) make every rule, every doctrine, every demand, into a certain and incontestable article of Faith. No right can stand against him, no personal or corporate liberty; or as the [Roman Catholic] Canonists put it—“The tribunal of God and of the pope is one and the same.”
Religious establishment prohibited. Freedom of speech, of the press, and right to petition. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
In 1834 the Papal Government proposed to convert the Papal five per cent, debt into a three percent, debt, for which the opportunity seemed highly favourable, seeing that the five per cents, were quoted at 102 to 104. To carry out this scheme, Cardinal Tosti, the Papal treasurer, started off to Paris, in order to arrange for a concerted plan of action with several banking firms in that city.
Six of the leading houses, namely, J. Hagermann, Andre and Cottier, B. A. Fould and Oppenheim, J. A. Blanc, Colin and Co., Gabr. Odier and Co., and Wells and Co., accordingly combined to form a syndicate to challenge the Rothschilds, enter into spirited competition with them, and if possible shatter the fetters by which the financial world in Paris was bound.
Andre and Cottier saw so clear a profit to be derived from the conversion of the five per cents, into three per cents., that they at length, after some consultation with their colleagues, declared themselves prepared to despatch an agent to the Papal exchequer to secure the business and ratify the contract.
Scarcely had the agent quitted Rome than the matter was publicly rumoured about. The Rothschilds, too, through the many influential friends they have among the officials of every government, are always sure to hear of such negotiations, so in this case the Naples house got wind of the proposed financial operation, and at once sent one of the younger partners to Rome. No sooner did he learn the exact position of affairs, than he produced the contract entered into by the Papal Government, when the five per cent, loan was undertaken by Rothschild in conjunction with the firm of Torlonia. This contract contained a clause, till then forgotten, by which the Papal chair engaged to enter into no definite treaty for any subsequent loan without giving the Rothschilds previous notice, and also to accord them the preference when their terms were not higher than those offered by other firms.
The Holy Father wished to enlarge his income, and Vincent was sent to Rome to Cardinal Tosti. His plan for the conversion of State stocks from five to three per cent., was soon approved of, and once more the temple of fortune stood open to him, when mighty Rothschild came, took Nolte’s plan, and closed on him the golden gates.
Originally posted by Cherryontop
Proto my friend, just wondering...have you given any thought to a book on this?
This really needs to be a book.