reply to post by Zerbst
Persia peaceful for thousands of years? What?
First they allied with the Babylonians to destroy Assyria.
Then they destroyed the Babylonian empire.
Then, under the Achaemenid dynasty, they built the biggest empire of the ancient world. They conquered almost everything in between from the borders
of India to Libya.
They tried to conquer Greece, but they failed.
Alexander the Great then took the fight back to them and briefly their empire collapsed.
They were occupied by the Greeks until the 3rd century BC, when they rose up off threw off the yoke of their conquerors and the Arsacid dynasty rose
They ruled from Pakistan to Iraq, somewhat larger than modern Iran.
Their greatest enemy was the Roman Empire, whom they would fight for centuries.
A new dynasty, the Sasanians, rose to power in the 3rd century AD. They built an impressive empire stretching in the south from India to Libya. In the
north from the Byzantine empire to China.
They fought the Romans and later the Byzantine for control of the Middle East. By the 7th century they had taken Alexandria, Egypt from the
Something else also happened in the 7th century, raiders emerged from Arabia carrying the banner of a new faith.
Arab tribes united a by a new faith, Islam, came roaring out of Arabia and across the Persian empire. By 633, Iraq had fallen to Arabs. In 642, the
Caliphate ordered the invasion of the Persian homeland and by 644 the Caliphate had conquered the Persian empire.
The Arab Caliphate continued to fight the Byzantines and amassed an empire from the Atlantic to Pakistan. A new Caliphate rose to power in the late
7th century and continued their conquests, pushing to India and into Spain. It was the largest empire in human history. The Arab caliphate even tried
to force all of its subjects to speak and write only in Arabic.
A new Caliphate, the Abbasids, rose to power in the 8th century. The Caliphate at this time began to fracture. The first rival Caliphate rose in
Spain. Then the Fatimids rose to power in North Africa. The Abbasid's Turkish warrior-slaves known as the Mamluks, dominated the Middle East and
Persia. The Mongol Horde arrived in the 13th century and laid waste to the Abbasid Caliphate.
In the aftermath, the Mongols established the Ilkhanate over Persia and part of the Middle East. They would rule until the 14th century.
The region fragmented in civil war and anarchy, until the arrival of another Mongol conquer, known as Timur. The Timurid/Mongol rule would last until
the 15th century.
Once again the area fragmented into civil war and anarchy.
Finally after centuries of occupation and decdes of collapse, Ismail I would form the Safavid dynasty in 1502. The foundations of modern Iran would be
formed by them. The Safavids made Shia Islam the official religion of the empire.
Things were not peaceful though. They soon came into conflict with the other major empire in the region, the Ottoman Turks. They would fight the Turks
for centuries, until two new powers threatened them from the north and the east.
First, the Russians had rose up and threw off the yoke of their occupiers the Mongols. They quickly began to expand. The Mughal dynasty then rose to
power in India and soon challenged the Persians.
The Persians began to have constant problems with Afghan tribal raiders. They tried to suppress them, but this only lead to Afghanistan's open
rebellion against the empire. The Afghans were united by a Pashtun known as Mahmud, who lead Afghan armies into Persia and defeated their armies in
1722. Mahmud then laid seige to the Persian capital.
The Safavids abdicated, and this Afghan warlord, Mahmud, was declared Shah. The Afghans occupied Persia for around seven years until the rise of a
Turkoman, Nadir Shah. He ruled the region until his assassination in 1747. The region fell into civil war. Karim Khan ruled as dictator from 1760 to
1779. After his death, the region again fell into civil war.
Agha Mohammed Khan, a Qajar Turkman, was absolutley ruthless in his campaign to reunite Persia. He was genocidal in his conquest. In 1794, he was
victorious and crowned Shah, establishing the Qajar dynasty. They quickly came into conflict with Russia. By 1820, Persia had lost the Caucasus to
Russia. They also failed to invade Afghanistan. Then in the 1850s the British Empire fought Persia, stopping them from again invading Afghanistan.
Russia continued to expand south, into central Asia all the way to Persia's borders.
In 1905, the first major revolution began in Persia. This would lead to Shah becoming a constitutional monarch in 1906. This would not last. The Shah
fought back and the country fell into civil war. This would last until 1909 when the Shah was exiled. In 1911, Russian troops occupied the capitol and
suspended the government. In 1925, a coup deposed of the current Shah and a new dynasty came to power, the Pahlavis.
The new dynasty, was supposed to be a constitutional monarchy. Mohammed Reza Pahlavi suceeded his father in 1941 as Shah. In 1951, he and the
Parliament would go head to head after the Parliament nationalized the oil industry. The Shah fled the country, but then returned after Operation
Ajax. The US and the UK backed a military coup, which overthrew the parliament. The Shah returned and became more and more autocratic, until 1979 he
was ovethrown in the Islamic revolution.
That was over 2500 years of Persian history. I didn't see any peace.
[edit on 18/4/10 by MikeboydUS]