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A digital camera has a electronic image sensor that converts light into an electronic signal. If an object is very bright, it can overwhelm the sensor. If you watch video shot with early digital video cameras, you'll see very bright lights show up on the recording as a bright vertical line. The engineers who designed cameras decided that wasn't a useful failure mode so they wrote instructions into the camera to shut off the pixels that got hit with the too bright light. Hence the black dot where the sun should be.