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Just like the Earth orbits the Sun, the Sun itself is part of the Milky Way galaxy. It takes about 220 million years for the Sun to complete a single journey around the Milky Way. But the Sun also bobs up and down as it travels in orbit around the center of the galaxy. The oscillation takes a total of 64 million years to complete. And there's a moment when the Sun passes directly through the galactic disk and there's a perfect galactic alignment between the Sun and the center of the galaxy
For all the models we consider, the most recent passage of the Sun through the galactic plane occurred in the past 3 Myr provided only that the present position of the Sun is between 0 and 20 pc above the plane.
In itself the appearance of the sun rising here is not a particularly unique event. The phenomena can be observed for winter solstice dates of numerous years either side of 2012. The only interesting new aspect of this year will be the sun appearing to just touch one part of the Dark Rift (Great Rift) that snakes its way along the Galactic Equator.
It is important to note that the year 2012 is not only the year the calendar system ends a major cycle but also a year including a rare Venus conjunction. The Maya and other ancient calendar scholars would certainly have considered conjunctions of the sun and Venus very special. Venus holds a uniquely important place in the planetary mythology of these peoples
To calculate their occurrence into the future is extremely difficult. It seems these people managed to do just this however as it seems likely they deliberately targeted 2012 at least in part due to this other event. Interestingly this conjunction occurs on 6-6-2012 then just months later on 28-03-2013 the Maya Venus-Sun calendar will finish a 104-year round
It happens approximately every five thousand years and Mayans understood it very well. The center of our galaxy periodically every five thousand years explodes with ejecting cosmic dust. That is why Mayan calendar starts 3000 BC and predicts a destruction of the earth in 2012.
The cycles of destruction starts with massive cosmic dusts thrown in the direction of the earth every five thousand years from the center of the galaxy.
Galactic Core Explosions - prevailing concept (1980): At the time of this prediction, astronomers believed that the cores of galaxies, including our own, become active ("explode") about every 10 to 100 million years and stay active for about a million years. Since our own Galactic core presently appears quiescent, they believed it would likely remain inactive for many tens of millions of years. Although, in 1977, astronomer Jan Oort cited evidence that our Galactic core has been active within the past 10,000 years.
Prediction No. 14 (1979): LaViolette discovered that the ancient star lore connected with the Sagittarius and Scorpius constellations indicated the location of the Galactic center, conveyed the idea of an explosive outburst, and specified a significant past date of 13,865 ± 150 years B.C. which also is encoded in the ancient Egyptian Dendereh zodiac. Also LaViolette found that myths, customs and esoteric lore descendent from prehistoric times indicated that cosmic rays from a Galactic core explosion catastrophically affect the Earth and solar system in recurrent cycles with the most recent event occurring near the end of the last ice age. He wrote up this idea in an unpublished paper in 1979 and formally published these ideas in 1995 and 1997 in his books Beyond the Big Bang and Earth Under Fire. In Earth Under Fire he also connected Mayan cosmology and World Ages with the Galactic center and Galactic superwave events. He began discovering these associations around 1987.
"Dr. LaViolette, who is currently president and chief researcher of the Starburst Foundation, was the first to demonstrate that cosmic rays from a galactic core explosion penetrate far outside a galaxy's nucleus to bombard solar systems like our own residing in the spiral arm disk. He coined the word "galactic superwave" to refer to such a cosmic barrage. He has shown that galactic superwaves recur at long intervals and arrive at Earth's doorstep without warning because they travel at near light speed.
Over the past few decades, to show the realism of iceage phenomena, science has come up with some rather startling evidence. Samples taken from the polar ice caps show iceage is real. Residue samples from the polar ice caps have shown iceages to be periodic, occurring about every 10,000 years or so. And if that wasn't bad enough, these samples taken from Antarctica, which have been forensically examined, show chronologically, that the last known ice age happened on earth around 9,500 years ago. And that means the next iceage is just around the corner.
However, the real crux of the problem concerning this delicate subject has always been, what causes iceage? Why should our planet suddenly take it upon itself to turn into one great big snowball?
Despite the current relatively warm climate on Earth, regular recurring epochs of glaciation have dominated the planet for the past million years. Ten times, glaciers have advanced and then retreated with the duration of retreat (and corresponding warmth) frequently lasting not more than 10,000 years. The Earth has been in a warm period for about 10,000 years now
Another extra-terrestrial theory, the galactic dust cloud theory, states
that ice ages were caused when the earth passed through cosmic dust,
blocking some of the solar radiation. This theory suffers from the
inability of astronomers to map areas of cosmic dust and to predict when
the earth would have passed through these clouds
Ice Age Civilization
The last Glacial Maximum hit its peak about 21,000 to 18,000 years ago.
11,600 years ago there was the Younger Dryas cold snap,
with temperatures 14 degrees C below present-day,
after which the Vela X supernova was seen on Earth
and the Taurid/Encke comet fragmented, and
a very sudden (50 years or so) warming event
ended the Ice Age and marked the start of the HOLOCENE AGE
of warm climate and glacial retreat.
I've got some figures I can show you. figures always help," says
paleoclimatologist Peter de Menocal, swiveling his chair from
reporter to computer in his office at Columbia University's
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, just north of New York
City. On the monitor, de Menocal pulls up a graph derived
from the research project known as GISP2 (for Greenland Ice
Sheet Project 2). ... By tracking oxygen-isotope ratios within
the ice cores, the GISP2 graph reflects temperatures over
Greenland for the past 15,000 years. Near the bottom of the
graph, a black line squiggle wildly until 11,700 years ago,
when the last ice age ended and the current warm era, the
Holocene, began. The line then climbs steadily for a few thousand
years, wavering only modestly, until 7,000 years before the
present. From then until now, global temperatures appear
relatively stable - "then until now" comprising, of course, the
entire span of human civilization. ...
At about the same time of the Monte Verde discovery, scientists who study the language and genetics of Native Americans found patterns which they believe must have taken longer than 15,000 years to evolve. Their research suggests that people may have migrated to the Americas as early as 30,000 years ago, before the last Ice Age began.
Both explanations about when people first came to the Americas could be valid. Based on the available evidence, people could have migrated at different times, before and during the last Ice Age. If this is true, then each wave of migration contributed to development of human culture in the Americas.t
The evidence comes from layers of sediment at more than 20 sites across North America.
These sediments contain exotic materials: tiny spheres of glass and carbon, ultra-small specks of diamond - called nanodiamond - and amounts of the rare element iridium that are too high to have come from Earth.
All, they argue, point to the explosion 12,900 years ago of an extraterrestrial object up to 5km across.
No crater remains, possibly because the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which blanketed thousands of sq km of North America during the last Ice Age, was thick enough to mask the impact.
By PAUL RECER
ATLANTA (AP) -- The second-largest extinction in the Earth's history, the killing of two-thirds of all species, may have been caused by ultraviolet radiation from the sun after gamma rays destroyed the Earth's ozone layer.
Astronomers are proposing that a supernova exploded within 10,000 light years of the Earth, destroying the chemistry of the atmosphere and allowing the sun's ultraviolet rays to cook fragile, unprotected life forms.
Melott said a gamma ray burst would explain both phenomena.
He said a gamma ray beam striking the Earth would break up molecules in the stratosphere, causing the formation of nitrous oxide and other chemicals that would destroy the ozone layer and shroud the planet in a brown smog.
"The sky would get brown, but there would be intense ultraviolet radiation from the sun striking the surface." he said. The radiation would be at least 50 times above normal, powerful enough to killed exposed life.
In a second effect, the brown smog would cause the Earth to cool, triggering an ice age, Melott said.
The extinction "could have been a one-two punch," said Bruce S. Lieberman, a paleontologist at the University of Kansas and a co-author of the theory. "Our theory builds on earlier theories" that included an ice age.
Before the extinction, the Earth was unusually warm. Melott said climate experts have been unable to find a model that would explain the sudden onset of massive glaciers.
Did an ice age boost human brain size?
29 July 2009 by Bob Holmes
Magazine issue 2719. Subscribe and save
For similar stories, visit the The Human Brain , Evolution and Human Evolution Topic Guides
IT IS one of the biggest mysteries in human evolution. Why did we humans evolve such big brains, making us the unrivalled rulers of the world?
Some 2.5 million years ago, our ancestors' brains expanded from a mere 600 cubic centimetres to about a litre. Two new studies suggest it is no fluke that this brain boom coincided with the onset of an ice age. Cooler heads, it seems, allowed ancient human brains to let off steam and grow
In 1974, the National Science Board announced: "During the last 20 to 30 years, world temperature has fallen, irregularly at first but more sharply over the last decade. Judging from the record of the past interglacial ages, the present time of high temperatures should be drawing to an end…leading into the next ice age."
By Daily Mail Reporter
It took just six months for a warm and sunny Europe to be engulfed in ice, according to new research.
Previous studies have suggested the arrival of the last Ice Age nearly 13 000 years ago took about a decade - but now scientists believe the process was up to 20 times as fast.
Old earth proofs: Most scientists accept these indicators, and many more like them, as proof of an old earth and universe. However, those scientists are forced to make a basic assumption: that naturally occurring processes and fundamental constants in the past behaved in the same way as they do today. For example:
The speed of light has remained more or less constant.
The number of cosmic rays hitting the earth has not changed much over time.
Space dust has accumulated at about the same rate over many thousands of years
The rate of growth of coral is similar in the past to what it is today.
Even if you assume that coral growth was once 10 times faster than today, the atoll is still over 13,000 years old. If you assume that the cosmic ray rate was once 80 times the current level, the hills in Nevada are still over 10,000 years old. If you assumed that space dust accumulated 1,000 times faster in the past, then the moon would still be 5 million years old.
Any one of these examples indicates that the earth is probably much older than 10,000 years old, Taken together, they are even more convincing
e two parameters govern the strength of the galactic shocks in the interstellar gas and the geometry of the spiral wave pattern. In turn, the shock strength and the theoretical pitch angle of the spiral arms play a major role in determining the degree of development of spiral structure in a galaxy and its Hubble type.
RED SHIFT:The change in color toward the red end of the spectrum due to an object's motion away from an observer. The red shift is due to the Doppler effect. It is only noticeable when an object is moving extremely fast. RELATIVITY:The common name for the theories put forth by Albert Einstein in 1905 and 1915.The General Theory of Relativity predicted the expansion of the universe. SHOCK WAVE:The large amplitude sound wave produced by an object travelling at Mach one or faster.When an object reaches the speed of sound,the sound waves it produces can no longer outrun it.The sound waves "pile up" in the front of the object and interfere constructively to produce one extremely large sound wave. At Mach 1, this shock wave is in the front of the object.
Density wave theory or the Lin-Shu density wave theory is a theory proposed by C.C. Lin and Frank Shu in the mid-1960s to explain spiral arm structure of spiral galaxies. Their theory introduces the idea of long-lived quasistatic density waves (also called heavy sound), which are sections of the galactic disk that have greater mass density (about 10–20% greater). The theory has also been successfully applied to Saturn's rings.
Lin and Shu proposed in 1964 that the arms were not material in nature, but instead made up of areas of greater density, similar to a traffic jam on a highway. The cars move through the traffic jam: the density of cars increases in the middle of it. The traffic jam itself, however, does not move (or not a great deal, in comparison to the cars). In the galaxy, stars, gas, dust, and other components move through the density waves, are compressed, and then move out of them.