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The first criminal trial without a jury to take place in England and Wales in more than 400 years begins on Tuesday after lawyers' legal challenges were exhausted.
John Twomey, 62, and three other defendants face trial over a bungled robbery at Heathrow airport in 2004.
Robbers allegedly tried to steal more than £10m from a warehouse but had misread a flight document and only £1.75m was there at the time, most of which has not been recovered.
Twomey and his associates face the historic trial in the absence of a jury after the court of appeal examined secret evidence and ruled that
Twomey has faced trial on charges in connection with the robbery three times already, at a cost of more than £20m. It was only in the last trial that the judge made allegations of jury tampering.
Anyone who has been tried at a Magistrates would never have seen or even had the chance of a Jury and that is where most smaller crimes are dealt with, unless the defendant demands a Jury, in which case it will be transferred to a Crown Court, but of course going to Crown Court means you run the risk of a tougher sentence if found guilty.