helped establish the Institute of Propaganda Analysis in 1937 to educate the
American public about the nature of propaganda and how to recognize propaganda techniques. Filene and his colleagues identified the seven most common
"tricks of the trade" used by successful propagandists.
These techniques are designed to fool us because the appeal to our emotions rather than to our reason.
These seven techniques are called
* Name Calling
* Glittering Generalities
* Plain Folks
* Card Stacking
* Band Wagon
But how to RECOGNIZE them and many more?
So i have made a list of some of the techniques and how to recognize them.
1. NAME CALLING or STEREOTYPING
Giving a person or an idea a bad label by using an easy to remember pejorative name. This is used to make us reject and condemn a person or idea
without examining what the label really means.
Examples: "Republican", "Tree-Hugger", "Nazi", "Environmentalist", "Special-Interest Group".
2. VIRTUE WORDS or GLITTERING GENERALITY
These words are used to dupe us into accepting and approving of things without examining the evidence carefully.
Examples: "Natural", "Democratic", "Organic", "Scientific", "Ecological", "Sustainable".
This is when an idea is made to appear holy, sacred, or very special and therefore above all law. Any alternative or opposite points of view are
thereby given the appearance of treason or blasphemy.
Examples: "God-given right to...", "Mother Earth", "Gia".
Transfer is when a symbol that carries respect, authority, sanction, and prestige is used along with and idea or argument to make it look more
acceptable. Examples: American Flag, University Seal, Medical Association Symbol (or something that looks like it).
This method is also called GUILT- or VIRTUE-BY-ASSOCIATION.
When some respected celebrity (or alternatively someone generally hated) claims that an idea or product is good (or bad). This technique is used to
convince us without examining the facts more carefully.
6. PLAIN FOLKS:
This is a way that a speaker convinces an audience that an idea is good because they are the same ideas of the vast majority of people like yourself.
Examples: "This is the will of the People", "Most Americans...". Another example would be when the speaker tells a story about a family or people
that are "just like you" to reinforce the speaker's point of view.
7. BAND WAGON:
This common propaganda method is when the speaker tries to convince us to accept their point of view or else we will miss out on something really
good. The Band-Wagon technique is often used in advertising.
Examples: "This is the wave of the future", "Be the first on your block", "Act Now!". You might ask yourself "What if I was the only one on
my block because no one else was interested (duped)?".
8. ARTIFICIAL DICHOTOMY:
This is when someone tries to claim there are only two sides to an issue and that both sides must have equal presentation in order to be evaluated.
This technique is used to dupe us into believing there is only one way to look at an issue, when in fact there may be many alternative viewpoints or
"sides". Like most propaganda techniques it simplifies reality and therefore distorts it, often to the advantage of the speaker. A classic example
is the "intelligent design" versus "evolution" controversy.
9. HOT POTATO:
This is an inflammatory (often untrue) statement or question used to throw an opponent off guard, or to embarrass them.
Examples "Have you stopped beating your spouse", "When will you pay the taxes you owe?" The fact that it may be utterly untrue is irrelevant,
because it still brings controversy to the opponent.
[edit on 9-1-2010 by Hithe Merinos]
[edit on 9-1-2010 by Hithe Merinos]