Amazon Review : From The Inside Flap :
It may be the most controversial book in the world. Some see it as a paean to peace, others call it a violent mandate for worldwide Islamic supremacy.
How can one book lead to such dramatically different conclusions?
New York Times bestselling author Robert Spencer reveals the truth in The Complete Infidel's Guide to the Koran: not many Westerners know what's in the Koran, since so few have actually read it -- even among the legions of politicians, diplomats, analysts, and editorial writers who vehemently insist that the Koran preaches tolerance.
Now, Spencer unveils the mysteries lying behind this powerful book, guiding readers through the controversies surrounding the Koran's origins and its most contentious passages.
Stripping out the obsolete debates, Spencer focuses on the Koran's decrees toward Jews, Christians, and other Infidels, explaining how they were viewed in Muhammad's time, what they've supposedly done wrong, and most important, what the Koran has in store for them.
Amazon Review :
Woodward's books on Watergate, the Supreme Court, and John Belushi were not so controversial as Veil.
His deathbed visit to William Casey, former CIA head, has been disputed by Casey's wife.
What Woodward knew about Casey's Iran-contra role was apparently withheld from Congress.
All this smoke has drawn attention from the fire.
Woodward's tale of attempted murders, payoffs to foreign leaders, covert contra aid, covert aid to Britain in the Falklands War, and anti-terrorist squads is formidable.
He presents Casey's CIA as a dangerously illegal loose cannon on the deck of U.S. foreign policy.
Richard B. Finnegan, Stonehill Coll., North Easton, Mass.
Copyright 1987 Reed Business Information, Inc.
Quote from : Wikipedia : Dialectic : Hegelian Dialectic
Hegelian dialectic, usually presented in a three-fold manner, was stated by Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus as comprising three dialectical stages of development: a thesis, giving rise to its reaction, an antithesis, which contradicts or negates the thesis, and the tension between the two being resolved by means of a synthesis.
Although this model is often named after Hegel, he himself never used that specific formulation.
Hegel ascribed that terminology to Kant.
Carrying on Kant's work, Fichte greatly elaborated on the synthesis model, and popularized it.
On the other hand, Hegel did use a three-valued logical model that is very similar to the antithesis model, but Hegel's most usual terms were: Abstract-Negative-Concrete.
Sometimes Hegel would use the terms, Immediate-Mediated-Concrete.
Hegel used these terms hundreds of times throughout his works.
The formula, Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis, does not explain why the Thesis requires an Antithesis.
However, the formula, Abstract-Negative-Concrete, suggests a flaw in any initial thesis—it is too abstract and lacks the negative of trial, error and experience.
The same applies to the formula, Immediate-Mediated-Concrete.
For Hegel, the Concrete, the Synthesis, the Absolute, must always pass through the phase of the Negative, that is, Mediation.
This is the actual essence of what is popularly called Hegelian Dialectics.
To describe the activity of overcoming the negative, Hegel also often used the term Aufhebung, variously translated into English as "sublation" or "overcoming," to conceive of the working of the dialectic. Roughly, the term indicates preserving the useful portion of an idea, thing, society, etc., while moving beyond its limitations.
(Jacques Derrida's preferred French translation of the term was relever).
In the Logic, for instance, Hegel describes a dialectic of existence: first, existence must be posited as pure Being (Sein); but pure Being, upon examination, is found to be indistinguishable from Nothing (Nichts).
When it is realized that what is coming into being is, at the same time, also returning to nothing (in life, for example, one's living is also a dying), both Being and Nothing are united as Becoming.
As in the Socratic dialectic, Hegel claimed to proceed by making implicit contradictions explicit: each stage of the process is the product of contradictions inherent or implicit in the preceding stage.
For Hegel, the whole of history is one tremendous dialectic, major stages of which chart a progression from self-alienation as slavery to self-unification and realization as the rational, constitutional state of free and equal citizens.
The Hegelian dialectic cannot be mechanically applied for any chosen thesis.
Critics argue that the selection of any antithesis, other than the logical negation of the thesis, is subjective.
Then, if the logical negation is used as the antithesis, there is no rigorous way to derive a synthesis.
In practice, when an antithesis is selected to suit the user's subjective purpose, the resulting "contradictions" are rhetorical, not logical, and the resulting synthesis is not rigorously defensible against a multitude of other possible syntheses.
The problem with the Fichtean "Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis" model is that it implies that contradictions or negations come from outside of things.
Hegel's point is that they are inherent in and internal to things.
This conception of dialectics derives ultimately from Heraclitus.
Hegel has outlined that the purpose of dialectics is "to study things in their own being and movement and thus to demonstrate the finitude of the partial categories of understanding"
One important dialectical principle for Hegel is the transition from quantity to quality, which he terms the Measure.
The measure is the qualitative quantum, the quantum is the existence of quantity.
"The identity between quantity and quality, which is found in Measure, is at first only implicit, and not yet explicitly realised.
In other words, these two categories, which unite in Measure, each claim an independent authority.
On the one hand, the quantitative features of existence may be altered, without affecting its quality.
On the other hand, this increase and diminution, immaterial though it be, has its limit, by exceeding which the quality suffers change.
[...] But if the quantity present in measure exceeds a certain limit, the quality corresponding to it is also put in abeyance.
This however is not a negation of quality altogether, but only of this definite quality, the place of which is at once occupied by another.
This process of measure, which appears alternately as a mere change in quantity, and then as a sudden revulsion of quantity into quality, may be envisaged under the figure of a nodal (knotted) line".
As an example, Hegel mentions the states of aggregation of water:
"Thus the temperature of water is, in the first place, a point of no consequence in respect of its liquidity: still with the increase or diminution of the temperature of the liquid water, there comes a point where this state of cohesion suffers a qualitative change, and the water is converted into steam or ice".
As other examples Hegel mentions the reaching of a point where a single additional grain makes a heap of wheat; or where the bald-tail is produced, if we continue plucking out single hairs.
Another important principle for Hegel is the negation of the negation, which he also terms Aufhebung (sublation): Something is only what it is in its relation to another, but by the negation of the negation this something incorporates the other into itself.
The dialectical movement involves two moments that negate each other, a somewhat and an another.
As a result of the negation of the negation, "something becomes an other; this other is itself somewhat; therefore it likewise becomes an other, and so on ad infinitum".
Something in its passage into other only joins with itself, it is self-related.
In becoming there are two moments: coming-to-be and ceasing-to-be: by sublation, i.e. negation of the negation, being passes over into nothing, it ceases to be, but something new shows up, is coming to be.
What is sublated (aufgehoben) on the one hand ceases to be and is put to an end, but on the other hand it is preserved and maintained.
In dialectics, a totality transform itself, it is self-related.
Quote from : Wikipedia : Operation Cyclone
Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency program to arm the Afghan mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, 1979 to 1989.
Operation Cyclone was one of the longest and most expensive covert CIA operations ever undertaken; funding began with $20–30 million per year in 1980 and rose to $630 million per year in 1987.
Amazon Review :
Steve Coll's Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 offers revealing details of the CIA's involvement in the evolution of the Taliban and Al Qaeda in the years before the September 11 attacks.
From the beginning, Coll shows how the CIA's on-again, off-again engagement with Afghanistan after the end of the Soviet war left officials at Langley with inadequate resources and intelligence to appreciate the emerging power of the Taliban.
He also demonstrates how Afghanistan became a deadly playing field for international politics where Soviet, Pakistani, and U.S. agents armed and trained a succession of warring factions.
At the same time, the book, though opinionated, is not solely a critique of the agency.
Coll balances accounts of CIA failures with the success stories, like the capture of Mir Amal Kasi.
Coll, managing editor for the Washington Post, covered Afghanistan from 1989 to 1992.
He demonstrates unprecedented access to records of White House meetings and to formerly classified material, and his command of Saudi, Pakistani, and Afghani politics is impressive.
He also provides a seeming insider's perspective on personalities like George Tenet, William Casey, and anti-terrorism czar, Richard Clarke ("who seemed to wield enormous power precisely because hardly anyone knew who he was or what exactly he did for a living").
Coll manages to weave his research into a narrative that sometimes has the feel of a Tom Clancy novel yet never crosses into excess.
While comprehensive, Coll's book may be hard going for those looking for a direct account of the events leading to the 9-11 attacks.
The CIA's 1998 engagement with bin Laden as a target for capture begins a full two-thirds of the way into Ghost Wars, only after a lengthy march through developments during the Carter, Reagan, and early Clinton Presidencies.
But this is not a critique of Coll's efforts; just a warning that some stamina is required to keep up.
Ghost Wars is a complex study of intelligence operations and an invaluable resource for those seeking a nuanced understanding of how a small band of extremists rose to inflict incalculable damage on American soil.
Publishers Weekly : Amazon Review :
The bin Ladens are famous for spawning the world's foremost terrorist and building one of the Middle East's foremost corporate dynasties.
Pulitzer Prize–winner Coll (Ghost Wars) delivers a sprawling history of the multifaceted clan, paying special attention to its two most emblematic members.
Patriarch Mohamed's eldest son, Salem, was a caricature of the self-indulgent plutocrat: a flamboyant jet-setter dependent on the Saudi monarchy, obsessed with all things motorized (he died crashing his plane after a day's joy-riding atop motorcycle and dune-buggy) and forever tormenting his entourage with off-key karaoke.
Coll presents quite a contrast with an unusually nuanced profile of Salem's half-brother Osama, a shy, austere, devout man who nonetheless shares Salem's egomania.
Other bin Ladens crowd Coll's narrative with the eye-glazing details of their murky business deals, messy divorces and ill-advised perfume lines and pop CDs.
Beneath the clutter one discerns an engrossing portrait of a family torn between tradition and modernity, conformism and self-actualization, and desperately in search of its soul.
Originally posted by SteveR
Maybe I have missed a detail... but I assume you don't believe in the idea of an inside job?
thoughts on the Middle Eastern conflict and how it might have been a part of foreign policy which eventually and unfortunately led to the events of September 11th,
Just how close as well do you think Hollywood comes to the truth within their movies?
Originally posted by ADVISOR
It is difficult to make out the actual circumstances.
Inside false flag made to look like a fifth column movement, it doesn't matter the threat exists. Some one is responcible, be it a group of religious zealots or a shadowy fat cat gaggle or any combination of two.
Very impressive collection of info.
I am going to have to go over what is presented and get back to this thread.
Kirkus Reviews : Amazon Review :
The former national security advisor is still a believer in geopolitics after all these years.
Like most foreign-policy aficionados weaned on the Cold War, Brzezinski (Out of Control, 1993) has been forced by the disintegration of the Soviet Union to broaden his perspective--but not very far.
He sees the US as the only global superpower, but inability to maintain its hegemony indefinitely means that ``geostrategic skill'' is essential.
To what end is not specified beyond the vague shaping of ``a truly cooperative global community'' that is in ``the fundamental interests of humankind,'' but in this genre, goals are commonly assumed rather than examined.
In any case, Brzezinski casts Eurasia as the playing field upon which the world's fate is determined and analyzes the possibilities in Europe, the former Soviet Union, the Balkans (interpreted broadly), and the Far East.
Like a grandmaster in chess, he plots his strategy several moves in advance, envisioning a three-stage development.
Geopolitical pluralism must first be promoted to defuse challenges to America, then compatible international partners must be developed to encourage cooperation under American leadership, and finally the actual sharing of international political responsibility can be considered.
The twin poles of this strategy are a united Europe in the West and China in the East; the central regions are more problematic and, for Brzezinski, not as critical in constructing a stable balance of power.
This updated version of East-West geopolitics is worth taking seriously but it is also an amazing example of how a perspective can be revised without actually being rethought.
(Radio satellite tour) --
Copyright ©1997, Kirkus Associates, LP.
All rights reserved.
Amazon Review :
This bold and important book strives to be a practical "strategy for a Second American Century." In this brilliantly argued work, Thomas Barnett calls globalization "this country’s gift to history" and explains why its wide dissemination is critical to the security of not only America but the entire world.
As a senior military analyst for the U.S. Naval War College, Barnett is intimately familiar with the culture of the Pentagon and the State Department (both of which he believes are due for significant overhauls).
He explains how the Pentagon, still in shock at the rapid dissolution of the once evil empire, spent the 1990s grasping for a long-term strategy to replace containment.
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Barnett argues, revealed the gap between an outdated Cold War-era military and a radically different one needed to deal with emerging threats.
He believes that America is the prime mover in developing a "future worth creating" not because of its unrivaled capacity to wage war, but due to its ability to ensure security around the world.
Further, he believes that the U.S. has a moral responsibility to create a better world and the way he proposes to do that is by bringing all nations into the fold of globalization, or what he calls connectedness.
Eradicating disconnectedness, therefore, is "the defining security task of our age."
His stunning predictions of a U.S. annexation of much of Latin America and Canada within 50 years as well as an end to war in the foreseeable future guarantee that the book will be controversial.
And that's good.
The Pentagon's New Map deserves to be widely discussed. Ultimately, however, the most impressive aspects of the book is not its revolutionary ideas but its overwhelming optimism.
Barnett wants the U.S. to pursue the dream of global peace with the same zeal that was applied to preventing global nuclear war with the former Soviet Union.
High-level civilian policy makers and top military leaders are already familiar with his vision of the future—this book is a briefing for the rest of us and it cannot be ignored.
Originally posted by OZtracized
Well, I ordered The Complete Infidel's Guide To The Koran so I'll be able to discuss this in 7 - 28 days.
I have been reading up on Hegelian Dialect. To sum it up, would you say the principle lies is offering an argument, offering a counter argument which is intentionally weak or false to lead to a false conclusion which suports your original argument?
Quote from : Wikipedia : Information Awareness Office
The Information Awareness Office (IAO) was established by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in January 2002 to bring together several DARPA projects focused on applying information technology to counter asymmetric threats to national security.
The IAO mission was to "imagine,,, , develop, apply, integrate, demonstrate and transition information technologies, components and prototype, closed-loop, information systems that will counter asymmetric threats by achieving total information awareness."
Following public criticism that the development and deployment of these technologies could potentially lead to a mass surveillance system, the IAO was defunded by Congress in 2003, although several of the projects run under IAO have continued under different funding.
Quote from : Wikipedia : Information Awareness Office : History
The IAO was established after Admiral John Poindexter, former United States National Security Advisor to President Ronald Reagan and SAIC executive Brian Hicks approached the US Department of Defense with the idea for an information awareness program after the attacks of September 11, 2001.
Poindexter and Hicks had previously worked together on intelligence-technology programs for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
DARPA agreed to host the program and appointed Poindexter to run it in 2002
The IAO began funding research and development of the Total Information Awareness (TIA) Program in February 2003 but renamed the program the Terrorism Information Awareness Program in May that year after an adverse media reaction to the program's implications for public surveillance.
Although TIA was only one of several IAO projects, many critics and news reports conflated TIA with other related research projects of the IAO, with the result that TIA came in popular usage to stand for an entire subset of IAO programs.
Quote from : Wikipedia : Muslim
A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم), pronounced /ˈmʊslɪm/, is an adherent of the religion of Islam.
The feminine form is Muslimah (Arabic: مسلمة).
Literally, the word means "one who submits (to God)".
Muslim is the participle of the same verb of which Islam is the infinitive.
Muslims believe that there is only one God, translated in Arabic as Allah.
Muslims believe that Islam existed long before Muhammad and that the religion had evolved with time from the time of Adam until the time of Muhammad and was completed with the revelation of verse 3 of Surah al-Maeda:
This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.
The Qur'an describes many Biblical prophets and messengers as Muslim:
Adam, Noah (Arabic: Nuh), Moses and Jesus and his apostles.
The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached his message and upheld his values.
Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus’ disciples tell Jesus, "We believe in God; and you be our witness that we submit and obey (wa ashahadu bil-muslimūna)."
Muslims consider making ritual prayer five times a day a religious duty (fard) (see the section on Ismāˤīlīs below for exceptions); these five prayers are known as fajr, dhuhr, ˤasr, maghrib and ˤishā'.
There is also a special Friday prayer called jumuˤah.
Currently, the most up to date report from an American think-tank has estimated 1.57 billion Muslims populate the world, representing 23% of an estimated 2009 world population of 6.8 billion.
With 60% in Asia and 20% of Muslims living in the Middle East and North Africa.
Quote from : Wikipedia : Jihad
Jihad (pronounced /dʒɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهاد [dʒiˈhæːd]), an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims.
In Arabic, the word jihād is a noun meaning "struggle."
Jihad appears frequently in the Qur'an and common usage as the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of Allah (al-jihad fi sabil Allah)".
A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid, the plural is mujahideen.
A minority among the Sunni scholars sometimes refer to this duty as the sixth pillar of Islam, though it occupies no such official status.
In Twelver Shi'a Islam, however, Jihad is one of the 10 Practices of the Religion.
According to scholar John Esposito, Jihad requires Muslims to "struggle in the way of God" or "to struggle to improve one's self and/or society."
Jihad is directed against Satan's inducements, aspects of one's own self, or against a visible enemy.
The four major categories of jihad that are recognized are Jihad against one's self (Jihad al-Nafs), Jihad of the tongue (Jihad al-lisan), Jihad of the hand (Jihad al-yad), and Jihad of the sword (Jihad as-sayf).
Islamic military jurisprudence focuses on regulating the conditions and practice of Jihad as-sayf, the only form of warfare permissible under Islamic law, and thus the term Jihad is usually used in fiqh manuals in reference to military combat.
Quote from : Wikipedia : Nonie Darwish
Nonie Darwish is an Egyptian-American human rights activist, and founder of Arabs For Israel.
She is the author of two books: Now They Call Me Infidel; Why I Renounced Jihad for America, Israel and the War on Terror and Cruel and Usual Punishment: The Terrifying Global Implications of Islamic Law.
Darwish's speech topics cover human rights, with emphasis on women's rights and minority rights in the Middle East. She is the director of Former Muslims United.
Born in Egypt, Darwish is the daughter of an Egyptian Army lieutenant general, who was called a "shahid" by the Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, after being killed in an Israeli raid.
Darwish blames "the Middle Eastern Islamic culture and the propaganda of hatred taught to children from birth" for his death, which she describes as an "assassination".
In 1978, she moved with her husband to the United States, and converted to Christianity there.
After September 11, 2001 she has written on Islam-related topics.
Quote from : Wikipedia : Robert Spencer
Robert Bruce Spencer (born 1962) is an American blogger and author of articles and books relating to Islam and Islamic terrorism.
He has published nine books, including two bestsellers, and also is a contributor to the FrontPage magazine, directed by David Horowitz.
He created Jihad Watch, a blog that focuses on Islamic terrorism-related events and various Jihad-activity worldwide.
Quote from : Wikipedia : Middle Ages
The Middle Ages of European history (adjectivial form: medieval or mediæval) is a period of international history covering roughly a millennium in the 5th century through 16th centuries.
It is commonly dated from the fall of the Western Roman Empire, and contrasted with a later Early Modern Period; the time during which the Reformation and the rise of humanism in the Italian Renaissance unfolded are generally associated with the transition out of the Middle Ages, with European overseas expansion as a succeeding process, but such dates are approximate and based upon nuanced arguments.
More specific starting and ending points are sometimes adopted by scholars to suit their respective specializations or current focus.
In particular, in British history, the Middle Ages are often understood to start at the Norman conquest of 1066 and continue through to about the end of the 15th century (the era between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Norman conquest is referred to as the Anglo-Saxon period).
"Periodization issues" are discussed in later section of this article.
The Middle Ages included the first sustained urbanization of northern and western Europe.
Many modern European countries owe their origins to events and trends in the Middle Ages; present European political boundaries are, in many regards, the result of the military and dynastic outcomes during this period.
What religion is he, Muslim or Christian, because so far I've found nothing other than speculation?
Originally posted by oozyism
reply to post by SpartanKingLeonidas
So you don't believe any one has any grudge against the US to carry an attack to harm its citizens the same way the US has harmed many other nation's citizens through its foreign policy.
Keep it simple... What goes around comes around.
You can't expect the US to keep intervening in other nation's internal affairs and get away with it. That is like me messing up with your family and causing unrest in your home for my own interest and get away with it.
I would follow revenge since revenge is sweet. And you can't tell me it's not.
Originally posted by Victoria 1
I am a Catholic so I do not know much about the Koran. However, I have been learning a lot since my boyfriend is Muslim. I do know that there are extremists in every religion. Look at what the Bible has done. For years and years there have been wars due to beliefs. Whether it is the Bible or the Koran. The world will never see eye to eye and there will always be hatred and problems due to religion. There is even hatred within the Muslim religion. The extremists think that all Muslims should be in line with them, however there are Muslims that don't believe there are virgins waiting for them in heaven. This problem will never be settled!!
Originally posted by oozyism
reply to post by SpartanKingLeonidas
What religion is he, Muslim or Christian, because so far I've found nothing other than speculation?
LOL don't you believe after demonizing the Muslim community all accross the world that the US president's least expectation would be to find some common grounds?
You are analysing the information you are finding in the wrong way. Try communicating with other member, not me because I have too much beef against members such as you.
Good luck fella.