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Originally posted by Indigo_Child
Further it is an established FACT where the vast majority of metallurgical revolutions came from - NOT INDIA - and these are without DOUBT the phases which influenced modern humanity the most.
No, actually they did. Indian metallugy was the most advanced of ancient times. They were mining all kinds of metals from their ores on a semi-industrial scale and exporting them to the world.
Evidence of the earliest production of high carbon steel in the Indian Subcontinent was found in Samanalawewa area in Sri Lanka. Wootz steel was produced in India by about 300 BC. Along with their original methods of forging steel, the Chinese had also adopted the production methods of creating Wootz steel, an idea imported from India to China by the 5th century AD. This early steel-making method in Sri Lanka employed the unique use of a wind furnace, blown by the monsoon winds and produced almost pure steel. Also known as Damascus steel, wootz is famous for its durability and ability to hold an edge.
They were producing very high quality steel, in fact their version of steel is still considered the highest quality in the world.
Other metals that require advanced techological process like zinc were also being produced in India before the common era:
Zinc mines at Zawar, near Udaipur in India, have been active since the Mauryan period in the late 1st millennium BC. The smelting of metallic zinc here however appears to have begun around the 12th century AD. One estimate is that this location produced an estimated million tonnes of metallic zinc and zinc oxide from the 12th to 16th centuries. Another estimate gives a total production of 60,000 tons of metallic zinc over this period. The Rasaratna Samuccaya, written in approximately the 14th century AD, mentions two types of zinc-containing ores; one used for metal extraction and another used for medicinal purposes.
Zinc was distinctly recognized as a metal under the designation of Fasada in the medical Lexicon ascribed to the Hindu king Madanapala and written about the year 1374. Smelting and extraction of impure zinc by reducing calamine with wool and other organic substances was accomplished in the 13th century in India. The Chinese did not learn of the technique until the 17th century.[56
I don't understand your insecurity in acknowleding to the Indians what rightfuly was discovered by them?
[edit on 27-12-2009 by Indigo_Child]
Originally posted by 13579
The history of the world is the recorded memory of the experience, around the world, of Homo sapiens. Ancient human history begins with the invention, independently at several sites on Earth, of writing, which created the infrastructure for lasting, accurately transmitted memories and thus for the diffusion and growth of knowledge. Nevertheless, an appreciation of the roots of civilization requires at least cursory consideration to humanity's prehistory. Human history is marked both by a gradual accretion of discoveries and inventions, as well as by quantum leaps—paradigm shifts, revolutions—that comprise epochs in the material and spiritual evolution of humankind. One such epoch was the advent of the Agricultural Revolution. Between 8,500 and 7,000 BCE, in the Fertile Crescent (a region in the Near East, incorporating the Levant and Mesopotamia), humans began the systematic husbandry of plants and animals — agriculture. It spread to neighboring regions, and also developed independently elsewhere, until most Homo sapiens lived sedentary lives as farmers in permanent settlements centered about life-sustaining bodies of water. These communities coalesced over time into increasingly larger units, in parallel with the evolution of ever more efficient means of transport. The relative security and increased productivity provided by farming allowed these communities to expand. Surplus food made possible an increasing division of labor, the rise of a leisured upper class, and the development of cities and thus of civilization. The growing complexity of human societies necessitated systems of accounting; and from this evolved, beginning in the Bronze Age, writing. The independent invention of writing at several sites on Earth allows a number of regions to claim to be cradles of civilization. Civilizations developed perforce on the banks of rivers. By 3,000 BCE they had arisen in the Middle East's Mesopotamia (the "land between the Rivers" Euphrates and Tigris), on the banks of Egypt's River Nile, in India's Indus River valley, and along the great rivers of China. The history of the Old World is commonly divided into Antiquity (in the ancient Near East, the Mediterranean basin of classical antiquity, ancient China, and ancient India, up to about the 6th century); the Middle Ages, from the 6th through the 15th centuries; the Early Modern period, including the European Renaissance, from the 16th century to about 1750; and the Modern period, from the Age of Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution, beginning about 1750, to the present.
Originally posted by downisreallyup
reply to post by Project2501
What? You are saying that Hinduism has no substantial writings? LOL! That's a good one!
For one, the Muslims destroyed most of the vast amount of writings, but of those that do exist, the Vedas date between 1500–1000 BCE, the oldest books of the Bible were written 1050 - 465 BCE, and the Quran was written after 600 CE! So, of all the world religions, Hinduism has the oldest and largest writings, with the Bible next, and the Quran last.
I love the way people just make stuff up!
Originally posted by downisreallyup
Originally posted by Anamnesis
reply to post by infinite
There's an article in this months Archeology Today magazine which claims that modern humans may have arrived in India much earlier than previously thought, as early as 74,000 years ago. They are finding stone tools and evidence of cattle herding underneath the Toba ash layer. That eruption occured about 74,000 yrs ago.
Toba - Wiki
Just goes to show that we have much to discover about the ancients.
One of the things I find fascinating about Inida is the Hindu religion, there seems to be no seperation between what we call Science and Religion. In other words Science and religion to the Hindus (my estimation... please forgive if it is not accurate) is the same thing. There is evidence that the ancient Indian's knew of the expanding Universe and Sub-Atomic particles as well.
All very cool and interesting stuff... India is one of my favorite topics and Indian food is one of my favorites as well... lol....
I study both science and religion together, because they each tell their particular side of the diamond. Science attempts to explain what we are observing, and religion attempts to explain how it came to be and why it's all here in the first place. Both are completely valid and complimentary activities of the mind/heart, and anyone who doesn't see that is really missing so much in life...IMHO
Originally posted by Onboard2
I also believe that India was one of the first, great civilizations on earth, but I still don't believe there was an Aryan invasion. After reading the Rig Vedas, it seemed the author was referring to sky gods.
Shri Indra was the favourite national god of the Vedic Indians, with about 250 hymns dedicated to him in the Rigveda, more than those devoted to any other god and almost one fourth of the total number of hymns of the Rigveda.
Shri Indra is the god of thunder, being similar in many ways to the Teutonic Thor (Old Norse Þorr; Old English Þunor; German Donner), or Greek Zeus/Roman Jupiter. Like Thor, he is described in the Rigveda as red- or tawny-beared (RV 10.23,4), though the extant sculpture and carvings seem to invariably show him as beardless. His characteristic weapon is the cudgel vajra ('thunder-bolt'), just as Thor's is the famous hammer Mjöllnir. Shri Indra is the pre-eminent drinker of the divine soma (the madhu or 'mead' of the gods), the imbibing of which exhilerates him and aids him in his heroic actions.[
The Indians referred to themselves as 'Aryan' or noble ones. I've also read that the Iranians referred to themselves as 'Arian' also. One who is noble or of higher spirituality.
I truly have my doubts about the Aryan invasion and wish I had more time to study the Rig Veda. I don't think any foreign power could crack a mountain into, unless they had supersonic weapons. I think there is evidence of green glass. One author even claimed the RigVeda is a code for Orion. Who knows. Was there a war from Orion, lol?
They certainly loved their Soma. I have read that Soma was originally a plant that could produce visions or experiences, but the knowledge of which plant has been lost.
Never the less, I would much rather have two or three sources of information rather than settling for one author's opinions.
You would have to live 6 life times to properly read & digest all of the Hindu writings that are available. This is why hindus believe in reincarnation I believe? So you don't feel overwhelmed perhaps in one life time as you can't read all that it has to throw in your face? And for the record real hindus read the "Bhagavad Gita" It's the hindu bible so to speak. While the Vedas as you speak of has in it's forth Saṃhitās a collection of spells and incantations, divination & apotropaic charms for voodoo doctors? Yea Real old stuff!
And I could list tons more that no one really reads.
Originally posted by Indigo_Child
I am probably the closest you will find to an expert on Indology and Hinduism on ATS. I have been absorbing India and Hinduism for almost 10 years now. I am very deeply spiritual and I quickly realised in my searching that Hinduism was the most spiritual religion on this planet with an unparalled amount of discourse on spiritual subjects. Hinduism is almost like a candystore for a spiritual seeker like me. I am not at all phased by how vast it is. In fact the bigger the selection the better. I intend to spend all my life in that store!