posted on Dec, 28 2009 @ 04:03 AM
Ridiculous - HERE IS THE CHINESE RECORD MATE ----INCLUDING STEEL
Chinese remainder theorem: The Chinese remainder theorem, including simultaneous congruences in number theory, was first created by the mathematician
Sunzi in the 3rd century AD,
ircadian rhythm, recognition of: The Huangdi Neijing, compiled by the 2nd century BC during the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD),
Climate change, concept of: In his Dream Pool Essays of 1088, Shen Kuo (1031–1095)
Decimal fractions: As proven by inscriptions from the 13th century BC, the decimal system existed in China since the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600–c. 1050
BC).
Equal temperament: During the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD), the music theorist and mathematician Jing Fang (78–37 BC) extended the 12 tones found
in the 2nd century BC
First law of motion, partial description: The Mohist philosophical canon of the Mojing, compiled by the followers of Mozi (c. 470 – c. 390 BC)
Gaussian elimination: First published in the West by Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) in 1826, the algorithm for solving linear equations known as
Gaussian elimination is named after this Hanoverian mathematician
Geobotanical prospecting: Geobotanical prospecting can be defined as the connection made between the types of vegetation that grow in certain areas
and the minerals that can be found underground in those same areas; this observation was first made in China
Horner scheme: Although named after English mathematician William George Horner (1786–1837), the Horner scheme, an algorithm used to estimate the
root of an equation and evaluate polynomials in monomial form, was actually first invented in China to find the cube root of the number 1,860,867 (the
answer given being 123).[29] This is found in the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) work The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, commented on by Liu
Hui (fl. 3rd century) in 263
Leprosy, first description of its symptoms: The Feng zhen shi ??? (Models for sealing and investigating), written between 266 and 246 BC in the State
of Qin during the Warring States Period (403–221 BC), is the earliest known text which describes the symptoms of leprosy, termed under the generic
word li ? (for skin disorders).
Negative numbers, symbols for and use of: In the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art compiled during the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD)
Pi calculated as : The ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Indians, and Greeks had long made approximations for p by the time the Chinese mathematician
and astronomer Liu Xin (c. 46 BC–23 AD) improved the old Chinese approximation of simply 3 as p to 3.1547 as p (with evidence on vessels dating to
the Wang Mang reign period, 9–23 AD, of other approximations of 3.1590, 3.1497, and 3.1679).[35][36] Next, Zhang Heng (78–139 AD) made two
approximations for p, by proportioning the celestial circle to the diameter of the earth as = 3.1724 and using (after a long algorithm) the square
root of 10, or 3.162.[36][37][38] In his commentary on the Han Dynasty mathematical work The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, Liu Hui (fl. 3rd
century) used various algorithms to render multiple approximations for pi at 3.142704, 3.1428, and 3.14159.[39] Finally, the mathematician and
astronomer Zu Chongzhi (429–500) approximated pi to an even greater degree of accuracy, rendering it , a value known in Chinese as Milü ("detailed
ratio").[40] This was the best rational approximation for pi with a denominator of up to four digits; the next rational number is , which is the best
rational approximation. Zu ultimately determined the value for p to be between 3.1415926 and 3.1415927.[41] Zu's approximation was the most accurate
in the world, and would not be achieved elsewhere for another millennium,[42] until Madhava of Sangamagrama[43] and Jamshid al-Kashi[44] in the early
15th century.
Snowflake, observation of its hexagonal structure: In his Moral Discourses Illustrating the Han Text of the Book of Songs of 135 BC, the Han Dynasty
(202 BC– 220 AD)
Solar wind, observation of via comet tails: In the Book of Jin compiled during the Tang Dynasty (618–907), a passage written in 635 AD
Spontaneous combustion, recognition of: In his Record of Strange Things written sometime before 290 A
Sunspots, recognition of as solar phenomena: The astronomer Gan De (fl. 4th century BC) from the State of Qi during the Warring States Period
(403–221 BC)
True north, concept of: The Song Dynasty (960–1279) official Shen Kuo (1031–1095), alongside his colleague Wei Pu,
Paper
Printing
Gunpowder
Compass
A model in Kaifeng of a Chinese ladle-and-bowl type compass used for geomancy in the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD); the historical authenticity of the
model has been questioned by Li Shu-hua (1954).[35]
In San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán, Veracruz, Mexico, an ancient hematite artifact from the Olmec era dating roughly 1000 BC indicates the possible use of
the lodestone compass in Central America long before it was described in China, yet the Olmecs did not have iron which the Chinese would discover
could be magnetized by contact with lodestone.[36] Descriptions of lodestone attracting iron were made in the Guanzi, Master Lu's Spring and Autumn
Annals and Huainanzi.[37][38][39] The Chinese by the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) began using north-south oriented lodestone ladle-and-bowl shaped
compasses for divination and geomancy and not yet for navigation.[40][41][42] The Lunheng, written by Wang Chong (27–c. 100 AD) stated in chapter
52: "This instrument resembles a spoon, and when it is placed on a plate on the ground, the handle points to the south".[43][44] There is, however,
another two references under chapter 47 of the same text to the attractive power of a magnet according to Needham (1986),[45] but Li Shu-hua (1954)
considers it to be lodestone, and states that there is no explicit mention of a magnet in Lunheng.[35] Shen Kuo (1031–1095) of the Song Dynasty
(960–1279) was the first to accurately describe both magnetic declination (in discerning true north) and the magnetic needle compass in his Dream
Pool Essays of 1088, while the author Zhu Yu (fl. 12th century) was the first to mention use of the compass specifically for navigation at sea in his
book published in 1119.[21][41][46][47][48][49][50] Even before this, however, the Wujing Zongyao military manuscript compiled by 1044 described a
thermoremanence compass of heated iron or steel shaped as a fish and placed in a bowl of water which produced a weak magnetic force via remanence and
induction; the Wujing Zongyao recorded that it was used as a pathfinder along with the mechanical South Pointing Chariot.[51][52][53]
[edit]Pre-Shang
Inventions which originated in what is now China during the Neolithic age and prehistoric Bronze Age are listed in alphabetical order below.
A bronze ritual bell 2000 BC,
Coffin, rectangular wooden: The earliest evidence of wooden coffin remains, dating from the 5000 BC
A bronze dagger-axe from the State of Han, Warring States Period (403–221 BC); this type of weapon has existed in China since the Neolithic
period
Dagger-axe: The dagger-axe or ge was developed from agricultural stone implement during the Neothilic, dagger-axe made of stone are found in the
Longshan culture (3000–2000 BC) site at Miaodian, Henan.
By the early Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD), military use of the bronze ge had become limited (mostly ceremonial); they were slowly phased out during
the Han Dynasty by iron spears and iron ji halberds.[70]
Drum, alligator hide: Drums (made from clay) have been found over a broad area at the Neolithic sites from modern Shandong in the east to Qinghai in
the west, dating to a period of 5500–2350 BC.
The earliest alligator drums, comprising a wooden frame covered with alligator skin are found in the archaeological sites at Dawenkou (4100 BC–2600
BC), as well as several sites of Longshan (3000 BC–2000 BC) in Shandong and Taosi (2300 BC–1900 BC) in southern Shanxi.[74]
Fermented beverage: Archaeologists have discovered residue of a fermented beverage that was 9,000-years old in pottery jars from the Neolithic site of
Jiahu,
Fork: The fork had been used in China long before the chopstick; a bone fork has been discovered by archaeologists at a burial site of the early
Bronze Age Qijia culture (2400–1900 BC), and forks have been found in tombs of the Shang Dynasty (c. 1600–c. 1050 BC) and subsequent Chinese
dynasties.
Lacquer: Lacquer was used in China since the Neolithic period and came from a substance extracted from the lac tree found in China.[82] A red wooden
bowl, which is believed to be the earliest known lacquer container,[83] was unearthed at a Hemudu (c. 5000 BC–c. 4500 BC) site.
lacquerware items come from a Xiajiadian (c.2000–c.1600 BC)
Lamian noodles, similar to the 4,000-year-old noodles made from millet found at Lajia
Millet, cultivation of: The discovery in northern China of domesticated varieties of broomcorn and foxtail millet from 8500 BC
Noodle: In 2005, an archaeological excavation at the Lajia site of the Qijia culture (2400–1900 BC) revealed 4,000-year-old noodles made of millet
(instead of traditional wheat flour)
Plowshare, triangular-shaped: Triangular-shaped stone plowshares are found at the sites of Majiabang culture dated to 3500 BC
Rice, cultivation of: In 2002, a Chinese and Japanese group reported the discovery in eastern China of fossilized phytoliths of domesticated rice
apparently dating back to 11,900 BC
Salt, use of: The earliest salt use is argued to have taken place on Lake Yuncheng, Shanxi by 6000 BC.[105]
A pottery ding vessel used for cooking from the Yangshao culture (c. 5000–c. 3000 BC)
Silk: The oldest silk found in China comes from the Chinese Neolithic period and is dated to about 3630 BC,
Soybean, cultivation of: The cultivation of soybeans began in the eastern half of northern China by 2000 BC