Sarmatian-Magyar connection and the Holy Grail
In our 1966 Journals of Hungarian Studies we studied the Sarmatian presence in England and their influence upon the arts, fashion, mythology of the
Islands along with the establishment of horse breeding and cavalry. Concerning their language we also made mention of a Sarmatian grave-good excavated
in Hungary that bore a Hungarian runic text. This latter is one evidence that the Sarmatians were a branch of the Hungarian speaking peoples of the
In the January and February 1997 edition of the Archeological Journal Scott C. Littleton who is professor of anthropology at Occidental College in Los
Angeles has written an article entitled Were Sarmatians the source of Arthurian legend? He also makes mention that in 175 AD Marcus Aurelius
dispatched 5,500 Iazygs from the Danube region. There is also evidence of Sarmatians in the region. In Professor Littleton’s opinion it is from their
culture that the Arthur legend originated along with the legend of the Holy Grail.
The writer of the article mentions that the first commander of the Sarmatians was Lucius Artorius Castus. According to the inscription on a stelae he
led his troops to Gaul in 184 to quench a rebellion. Like the legendary King Arthur, he too led a cavalry into the European arena. “The first
Sarmatian leader of the Ribchester contingent probably took on the title artorius, borrowing his commander’s name. A subsequent leader may have been
King Arthur, the “Artorius, dux bellorum (war leader)...” writes professor Littleton. King Arthur saved Britain by defeating the Saxons at Badon hill
in 510 AD. We did discuss the further implications of this title in our previous Journal. We also discussed the Sarmatian Yazyg affiliations at the
Professor Littleton discusses a relationship between the Sarmatians, Scythians and the Alans. The entire legend of King Arthur and his court, the
Round Table, the Holy Grail may all have had Sarmatian origins. He identifies Sir Lancelot with a leading personality of the Alans. The legends of the
Holy Grail later became embellished with Christian myths that never really found favor in the eyes of the Church. The first written document of the
Round Table came from the works of Wace of Jersey entitled Roman de Brut, dated 1155 AD (3, Vol.10:208).
The Sarmatian-Magyar linguistic and geographical links are supported by Herodotos: ”As we cross the Tanais we are not on Skythan soil anymore. In the
first district live the Sauromati who reside from the upper corner of the Meotis for a fifteen days long journey toward the North. Their land is bare
where no tree grows, no fruit trees or trees grown in the wild. (Herodotos History, 2.vol. Every Man’s Library 405, 406, London 1949)
The first syllable of the Sauromati is equivalent with the Hungarian word sár which means the yellow shine of the gold, or szár that means bald. Both
of these words are an archaic form but still used in poetic or historical texts. One Hungarian historical figure’s name was László Szár, which means:
László the Bald. The second syllable of Sauromata is related to the Magyar word megye, which is still in use in the name of Kecskemét, a Hungarian
city. The word mata is also related to the Magyar word mező, meaning grassland, which fully describes the land of the Sauromatians. In summary, the
Sauromata, Sarmata words mean a shiny (sár) or a barren (szár) land. Considering that Herodotos emphasized that the land of these people was void of
all trees, the latter may be more appropriate. The two concepts intertwine: where there are no trees, no shade, the landscape is sunnier, brighter.
The English meadow belongs into the same wordgroup.
The mata word is connected to the Magyar méz (honey) and méh (bee) words. Considering that Greek historians described the Scythians as living on milk
and honey it is evident, that these words belong into the same culture. Greek historians also mention that it is impossible to cross the Carpathian
mountains because of the many “bees” (méh). Thus one realizes that this wordgroup and culture originated from the Carpathian valley. This “milk and
honey” culture also has some affinities with the culture of the Medes and Mesopotamia. The Welsh place-name Mesgarmon, which means the meadow of Mes
is identical with the Magyar mező.
In the 2. issue of 1996 of the Journal for Hungarian Studies we made mention of a Sarmatian dish as part of the grave goods of a Sarmatian nobleman.
The inscription of this dish is written with the Siculo-Magyar runic script called rovás; the text is written in the Magyar language. Considering this
text and the Magyar meaning of Sarmatian names we have to count these peoples among the Magyar nations. The cultural and linguistic data of the Magyar
early history shed extended light not only to the mythological elements of Western Europe, but also to the ancient and early history of the West. This
study will briefly mention the Magyar relationships of the Arthur legends:
1. The legends concerned with Arthur
2. Legends concerning Arthur’s sword. These were written down the first time by Thomas Malory in the 15th century. (3, Vol.4:626) According to
professor Littleton these legends are of Sarmatian origin.
3. Legends of the Round Table. The first mention of these is in Wace Jersey’s Roman de Brut, from 1155 AD. (3,Vol.10:208).
4. Legends of the Holy Grail. Its first mention is in Robert de Boron’s work from the year 1200 AD.
According to the Encyclopćdia Britannica, the Holy Grail is a round, wide vessel. The etymology of the word is not known but it is assumed that it
goes back to Celtic origin, since there is a long tradition of magic cauldrons, horns of plenty, vessels that give new life and so on. The Grail’s
first written record dates to 1200 AD to Robert de Boron’s work on this subject. This word is sometimes connected with the Old French word graal,
which means a large, deep serving vessel.
Its Magyar etymology through the “K-R” wordgroup and its affiliations gives added explanations not only to this name but the names of places,
historical and mythical figures of the British Islands that were touched by the Grail’s presence. In our further discussions we will follow the data
of Geoffrey Ashe’s cited work
History as told by Diodorus Siculus
Diodoros Siculus talks about the descendants of Skythes, who were Palos and Napus. He also mentions that their descendants carried their father’s name
as the name of their people also. They occupied vast lands from the Tanais (Don) to Thracia and expanded their rule to Egypt and the Nile subduing
antiquity’s many famous nations. Finally their rule extended to the Caspian Sea and the Eastern ocean also. Since these people were numerous, they had
renown kings, from whom the Saka, the Massagetae, the Arimasp received their names. Again some others who came from Media settled near the Tanais, who
were called Sauromatae. (Diodoros II.45)
“This narrative uses similar method of originating words concerning the names of Palos and Napus, similar to that of Herodotos in the case of Scythes;
according to Siculus the Palos and Napus people got their names, which sound very familiar to the Magyar ears, from their two kings. It is easy to
recognize in the first one the Palóc nation’s name, in Napus we recognize our word for Sun (Nap). This name is also preserved in the ancient name of
Kolozsvár that was Napóca in Erdély (Transylvania). The Saka, Sekel, Sicul or Székely nation belonged to the ancient Scythians. According to Diodoros
we also have to place the Massagetae, the Arimasp and the Sarmatians to the Scythian people” says Endre K. Grandpierre, dedicated researcher of
Diodorus Siculus also talks about the huge territories which the Scythians occupied and this will be important in relationship with the origin saga of
the Scottish people. The name of Media is also related to the Magyar mező, méz, and méh (meadow, honey and bee) words. The concept of a land “flowing
with milk and honey” as the epitome of plenty must have originated in the lands of the milk drinking Skythans. Studying the history of the British
Isles the Magyar historical and geographical names are frequent obvious.
Rheged kingdom was the protector of national poetry. The four great poets of the British isles are connected with Rheged. The Rheged name may be
connected with the Magyar regős, who were the poets, sages, historians, preservers of ancient religion through music and song. They had lands allotted
to them which not even in King István’s time when persecutions of “pagan” memories already began at the hand of the priests of the new religion. The
Hungarian town of Regőc preserves their memory. Regőc is located in the ancient district of Sátorhegy where prince Ferenc Rákóczi spent his childhood
with his mother Ilona Zrinyi. Both are the personifications of love of the country.
Taliesin was among the four great poets of Rheged. His name is translated as “Radiant Brow." He preserved the memory of an ancient home among the
summer stars. The first syllable of his name (Tal) is connected with the Magyar words for shine (dél, deli), song (dal) and our Táltos priestly class,
who taught people through song. Arthur’s name belongs into the same wordgroup (T-R, T-L). The second syllable of his name (sin) is identical with the
Magyar word szem, szen meaning eye. The Magyar meaning of this name is The Shiny Eye. Taliesin’s home among the morning stars may also be connected
with Arctoúros and the rotation of the sky. As a matter of fact the Shiny Eye may carry the star meaning too. A Magyar tale talks about the Star Eyed
The ancient memories were preserved by the poets of Rheged on the British Isles and the regős in Hungary. Their voices were drowned in blood. The
great Hungarian poet, János Arany’s poem, the Bards of Wales mourned both.
Geoffrey Ashe mentions that the Celts have no mythology in which a god by the name of Arthur can be found.
In Magyar traditions the name Artur leads us to our Őstörök nation, the Etruscans, and the prehistory of the Turanian peoples. The second syllable of
this name “tur” means bull and a maleness. This word describes our beautiful Sun’s daily journey and return just as much it describes the circling
flight of the falcon, which the Török group called Turul-bird. In this context Arthur’s name means Bull Man, Sun man, whose role is linked inseparably
with his return.
Britain’s ancient history begins, as does the Magyar with Fairy traditions which are also an inseparable part of the Arthurian legends. It is
interesting to note, that the Mythology of the British Isles preserved a memory, according to which these fairies spoke in the language of the
Troyans. As Arthur’s name is connected with the Magyar túr, so is the name of Troy. As long as the name of Arthur cannot be tied to any of the Celtic
god names, there is ample proof that this name was part once of Magyar Mythology, celebrated today in a festival of the so called „Turka-járás”, a
part of the Winter Solstice celebration. Arthur, or better Artur was once the personification of the Son just as much as was the Magyar Miklós Toldi.
In later Germanic mythologies we find Tor, William Tell with the same role and names. The feminine of this word is “tér," which means a well defined,
material space, and also a closed circle as does the related English word: turn. The Etruscan goddess Turan was personification of the round Earth and
their country; the later Latin word terra was derived from here.
Bors, knight of the Round Table
The Arthurian legends preserved the memory of Bors as a cousin of Lancelot. This latter is believed to be of Alanic origins and this relationship
points of Magyar-Alan relationships also. Dr. Tibor Baráth studied the culture and history of the Alans and I refer the reader to his works. The Bors
family’s presence in the Carpathian basin predates the arrival of the Árpáds by far. According to Arthurian legends Bors once traveled to an unknown
place called Sarras across the sea. Later he continued his search for the Holy Grail, which showed up in Europe for a while, then disappeared again,
to its ancient home in Asia, or to heaven according to diverse traditions. Bors and Lancelot settled finally at Glastonbury to establish a religious
community, which dissolved after the death of Lancelot.
The name of Sarras is again connected with the Magyar word for shine (sár), the Sáros form means “shiny." Near the Bors family’s pre-Árpád ancestral
home in Borsod is the town of Sárospatak; Bors may have traveled to one of the towns in Hungary named Sáros. The history of Borsod leads into great
antiquity. Beginning with the Bükk culture its cultural layers lead in an unbroken line to our days. At Zöldhalompuszta the grave of a Skythan prince
was excavated, and among the many splendid artifacts there was the most sacred symbol of the Magyar peoples: the golden Stag. During the great
migrations Germanic people, Kvads and Sarmatians lived also in this region, and after the VI-IX century AD the Avars settled these lands. The early
presence of the Sarmatians may place the Arthurian legends to an even earlier date. At the same time this makes Bors’s Sarras a part of this region at
Sáros even more plausible. The Bors-Miskóc family had holdings in Borsod up to 1312 AD. Near Miskolc lies Diósgyőr where an ancient, ring shaped
castle (Geuru, Győr) stood and the region was inhabited up to the 17th century AD. (10) This castle may also be connected with the Bors family. The
official Hungarian historians of today do not accept the idea of a pre-Árpád Magyar presence in Hungary. Considering the ancient round castle of
Borsod, the probable historical time of the Arthurian legend of the 5th century AD the presence of the Bors family in Europe including Borsod county
cannot be dismissed and the present notions of Hungarian presence in the Carpathians have to be reevaluated. The Bors family name is frequent even
today in Hungary.
One Arthurian legend holds that his sword was embedded in a huge stone and only a very deserving person, destined to be king can extract it. This
legend was preserved by Sir Thomas Malory in the 15th century AD. (3:Vol.4:626) The ancient Magyar method of changing iron into steel was the
following: the swords were stuck blade up into a mound exposing them to lightning. When lightning hit these swords their molecular structure changed
and made their material far better than it was before. They were also touched by God in the most literal sense since the Magyar expression for
lightning is “The arrow of God” (Isten nyila). The sword in the stone may also be connected with the knowledge of extracting iron from ore, in which
the sword was embedded and has to be extracted, in a very literal sense. The well known story of Atilla’s sword, which became called God’s Sword
(Isten kardja) originated in such a method of sword craftsmanship. According to this story a shepherd boy found a piece of iron sticking out of the
meadow. He tried to lift it out, but the sword started to flame and jumped out of the earth. As it cooled down the boy took the sword to Atilla
realizing that this is fit for a king only. The episode of the flaming sword brings the lightning stricken swords to mind. The first iron foundries of
Europe were in Hámor, Bors county of Hungary. At the much later time of Árpád in the ninth century iron was also extracted from the iron ore found
free in the meadows and each center of the seven dukes had such foundries.****
According to the second version Arthur’s sword was made by fairies and an arm emerging from the waters handed it to him; the sword’s return at the end
of Arthur’s life followed the same pattern. This sword was called Excalibur. British scholarship originates this word from the Latin chalybs, meaning
steel. This etymology is believed to be uncertain, which shows that the origin of the story, the names have not originated within the English culture
sphere, even though it is very much a part of the thought process of the English people. Irish tradition calls the sword Caladbold, and this is the
older version of the sword legend.
The Magyar kar, kard words are related to the cal syllable, but it is also related to the word hal which means to sink and to die. An arm lifts the
sword out of the water and this arm sinks into the waters with the sword is expressed the following way in the Magyar language: “Kar emeli ki a kardot
a vízből, s a kar a karddal a vízbe hal.” If we take the Magyar translation of Excalibur and equate the syllable cal with sinking, the bur syllable
with castle we get the meaning of “from the sunken castle”. This translation becomes even more plausible when we take into consideration that the
Magyar name of the Holy Grail’s original owner is Halász Király (Fisher King) who lived in a perpetual state of near-death (halál). The linguistic
connection of this legend is easily understood based on the Magyar language.
In Denmark a great many swords were found buried into a watery grave. According to Magyar symbology the sword and its cover was a symbol of life as
the water was too. A great word cluster relates to this idea.
The Holy Grail
Geoffrey Ashe, the dedicated researcher of the Arthurian legends believes that the Holy Grail is a summation of the male-female principle and symbols.
At the base of Magyar consciousness is the knowledge of the interchangeability of energy and matter. This knowledge was built into their language and
is also part of their symbology. The pure gold sun-cap of the ancient Magyar kings, as a cap when worn round side up on one’s head was considered a
male symbol, which united heaven and earth into a creating unit. According to Magyar legends only a man, who was chosen by the Holy crown can become
king. The last such king was Hollós Mátyás, Mathias Corvinus. Tradition holds that the Holy Crown just appeared on his head and in this way did it
become apparent who should be King. Both the Hollós and the Corvinus cognomens and the Magyar names of the raven (holló) holding a ring (gyűrű) which
appear on their family crest belong into the large K-R wordgroup as does the word grail. Matthias Corvinus Rex’s famous library and his Corvinae may
have held great amounts of European early history. Pitifully they have become scattered by foreign invaders. The presence of ravens is greatly
connected with the Arthurian legends and a still nurtured, living tradition in England.
When the cap is used as a cup, a vessel, hollow side up it becomes a symbol of femininity, which is able to contain, to enfold. Yet the cap and the
cup are both essentially the same. The Magyar language expresses this concept of interchangeability of energy, which is considered the male principle
of creation and matter, which is the female principle through the reciprocity of words. The Magyar bak (buck) is a male, its reciprocal form kupa
(cup) is a female symbol along with the word kap (to receive). One also must note that the Magyar and English words are identical both in meaning and
form. There are several hundred words identical between the Magyar and English language, which is the subject of a separate study. I will touch only
upon the few words closely related to this present article.
The memory of the gold Magyar Sun-crown was handed down from ancient traditions. The object and its symbology originated in a time when only Magyars
(the original meaning of this word is “human”) lived on this earth in a happy Golden Age. Later historical epochs handed down this symbol to many
generations where these still live in their souls, language and traditions. When overpopulation of the Carpathian basin spilled over to the
neighboring lands and new successive societies were formed this symbol still remained important in the mythology of Magyar peoples. Let us take a look
what the Greek authors wrote.
The first saga of Herodotos
The “feathers," pihe in the Magyar language denotes both down and snowflakes. The informant of Herodotos must have spoken Magyar according to this
remark. If there would be no further proof even this one word could serve as important testimony of the common language and origins of the
Magyars-Skythans and Huns. According to Herodotos at the time of these princes a golden plow, and yoke fell from the sky, symbols of a settled,
agricultural life which originated at the time of Fairies’ Golden Age. According to Magyar legends God thought our ancestors this peaceful mode of
living. The word ****bárd**** I am translating as “fokos," the double ax of the Siculs and which is also a symbol of life. The cup, as we have
already seen symbolizes the Sky and Earth, energy and matter, in summary: it is the symbol of Life.
Later on we will see that the Holy Grail is also a life- and sustenance-giving properties much like the magic table of the Magyars. But it is only in
the Magyar language where life and sustenance can be expressed with the same word: élet.
The second legend of Herodotos
The royal princes wear a cup here too as sign of their ancestry. It is an important circumstance that Skythes won the cup, from whom the Huns and
Székelys (Siculi) descend and among whom the Székely holy, sacramental vessel (székely áldozópohár) still upholds this heritage. It is also important
to note that beginning with Skythes all Skythans wear this holy cup on their belts, which is an important symbol of the equality of all Székelys to
this day. The ideal of equality emerges again in the legends of King Arthur and which ideal is part of a Sarmatian and Skythian heritage. Arnold
Ipolyi held the traditions of the Székely holy vessel very important and he followed the fate of the hereditary priestly order of the Rabonbáns up to
our days. (9:II. Vol. 296) He also makes mention of other libation vessels: “...at sacrificial ceremonies the cauldrons could not be missed and so
certain holy vessels were used at the libation ceremonies. Anonym (one of the first codex writers during the reign of the Árpáds) mentions them in
conjunction with blood ceremonies: ’Fusis sanguinibus in unum vas.’ The Székely Holy Cup is mentioned in this context which may be a surviving part of
an ancient tradition inherited from the Scythian antiquity as part of a tradition as the Székely Chronicle’s historical segment tells us (9:II,
276-8), as if this cup would have belonged to the well known Skythan Anacharsis; how holy this vessel was to them it is shown by the fact that this
cup was used in ceremonies performed by the Rabonbáns.” Beautiful examples of such cauldrons were excavated in the Hungary proper and its surrounding
areas. Ipolyi also mentions the horns that served as libation vessels, musical instrument and weapon of defense at the same time. The horn of plenty’s
additional meaning of light and plenty is discussed in detail by Adorján Magyar.
A holy vessel of the Székelys is called the Ukkon cup is a wide, flat vessel with a rounded bottom used at ceremonies sealing an agreement. This
vessel cannot be put down due to this construction until it has not been fully emptied. Ipolyi brings this word in relation with the Magyar words ük
(ancestor) and ég (sky). A similar vessel is among the ancient artifacts of the Békásmegyer Hungary. An Akkadian vessel dating to 2.050 BC is also of
He also mentions the “zádok” trees which were considered in ancient pagan times a holy tree, God’s tree; in later Christian times they were grown near
the churches; out of the wood of these trees were the ancient holy vessels or cups made.” (9:I,330)
Dr. Tibor Baráth brings a cup pertaining to the Nagyszentmiklós treasure in Hungary, which is a low, wide mouthed vessel studded with precious stones.
Its shape and decoration are the equivalent of the Holy Grail’s appearance as tradition describes it. (7:I,4). Dr. Baráth believes that it was this
cup used to poison Atilla. Imre Oláh researcher of runic writings translated the runic script as a blood holding vessel. The different translations
necessitate further studies. Considering that today’s historians connect the Grail legend also with the arrival of the Alans in the West, these two
synchronicities cannot be accidental.
The Sumerians speaking an agglutinative, non Indo-European European language lived in a matriarchal society. Their holy vessel in the Dumuzi legend
held milk. When this cup was broken by the evil spirited Gallas, his life came to an end too.
Archaic Magyar prayers also preserved the memory of an ancient holy vessel. In its Christianized form “three drops of blood of our Lord Christ and
three crops of milk of the Virgin Mary were collected in this vessel” (8:247). Researchers of Hungarian history point out that the content of these
holy vessels is a mirror of the society which holds them in reverence. The cup’s content in a matriarchal society is the milk of a Goddess. In
patriarchal societies where life has to be protected through the shedding of blood, especially at times of war — as we have seen in case of the
Árpáds’ covenant — the sense of unity is expressed through blood. The cups of the ancient Magyar prayers contain both: milk and blood. I consider this
an eloquent sign of their society based upon the equality of the sexes; the crown witness of the existence of this society is the Magyar word for
wife, which is “feleség” meaning “my half." When faced with the overwhelming force of an enemy the Magyar women fought next to the men like the
famous women of Eger fought against the onslaught of the Turks even in the 16th century AD. Women also kept their maiden names next to their wedded
names, like Ilona Zrinyi, Zsuzsanna Lórántffy, mentioning only the two best known historical figures.
The previously mentioned golden Sun-cap, which originated in the fairy times of the Golden Age and made out of the gold of the Csallóköz was the
original, ancient Magyar Holy Crown. At the time of the last coronation it disappeared and a gold fabric has been put in the cup’s place. Was this
“disappearance” an act of malicious robbery, or is the saga of the Holy Grail thus continuing?
The cult of the “Stone of Destiny” goes back to Pictish origins. Their coronations used to take place in Scone, near Perth. The person to be crowned
was seated on this stone. As the Scythian descendants, the Scoots occupied more and more lands. Finally Kenneth MacAlpine claiming Pictish ancestry
had himself crowned King of the Picts and Scots. According to Scotish legends a princess Tea brought this stone to Ireland where she married Tamair.
Tara’s landscape is adorned with round, flat topped mounds clearly discernible even today. Since the arrival of this stone all kings were crowned
there. Prince Fergus, founder of Dalriada brought the stone first to the Island of Iona from Ireland, later the above mentioned Kenneth brought it to
Scone. Edward I. brought it to Westminster, when Queen Elizabeth the II. with a magnanimous gesture returned this stone to Scotland. Linguistic
connections of the above are as follows: Considering the round, flat topped mounds of Tara it is reasonable to connect this legend, its people to the
Magyar tár-tér (return, space), Tera, Turan mother goddesses. These names are also connected with Arthur’s name and legends.
The taking of an oath is part of the Magyar coronation ceremony. The word oath is eskű in Magyar which contains the word kő, kű, meaning stone.
According to Adorján Magyar some Magyar nations used to take an oath touching a holy stone, usually a meteor-stone, which was considered pure,
uncontaminated, coming from above. Such a stone is the Muslim’s famous black stone, called Kaba, or Csaba. (According to Christianized legends the
Stone of Destiny was used by Abraham as a pillow.)
Places of worship
In Ireland near Killarney a mother goddess by the name of Anu or Annan was worshipped. Anu’s name is identical to the Magyar anyu, anya and anyag
words (mother and matter). It is worthy to note that here this name has been applied properly to express motherhood. In Mesopotamia, further away from
the Carpathian valley Anu’s name underwent a radical transition due to misunderstanding of a mythology and became a male deity. The road leading to
this misunderstanding is easy to follow and to explain but would take us far from the goal of the present study. Annwfn’s name seems to bear
connections with the Magyar an, anna, anya, anyag (mother, matter, land) and the fény (shine) words. These give a meaning “the land of shine” to the
Britain’s most important place of worship was at the monument we call Stonehenge today, a round structure of huge stones. According to native legend
the giants who built it came from Africa. It was believed that these stones have healing properties. Its old name was simply Chorea Gigantum, the
round dance of the giants, or just simply: the circle. The blue stones of Stonegenhge came from the vicinity of Carmarthen’s Prescelly mountains.
Geoffrey Ashe brings these structures into connection with the round temples of Hecataeus of Abdera which graces the lands of the Hyperboreans. He
places the lands of the Hyperboreans onto an island above Gaul. According to legends the stones of this temple cannot be counted. Adorján Magyar’s
work deals with Sanudo’s map of early Europe where the island of Csallóköz, the mythical home of the fairies and the Magyars is drawn as a huge
island, covering almost half of Europe (5:230). He explains this vast overstatement of size with the great importance of the European origin myths
which it symbolized. Stonehenge II and III was built between 2.500 and 2.000 BC. The later priests of this holy place, the Druids were also
Hyperboreans according to Greek legends. They also state that Apollo visits this land every 19 years. The fact is that the Druids created a 19 year
calendar to reconcile the solar and lunar calendars and this fact seems to connect them with the Hyperborean legends.
The ancient round temples of the Magyars are well known. The latest such excavation was at Sárospatak Hungary. The church of Őskű belongs also into
this line. Őskű’s name means: ancient stone; the English word for church carries the same meaning. The Druids of Stonehenge were not only priests but
constituted a priestly cast akin to the Magyar Magi and Táltos. The name of the Druids cannot be explained with Indo-European etymology. A famous
priest among them was called Mog Ruith, who, according to legend was dressed in a suit of bull skin, over which he placed a bird costume and he was
able to fly. Because of this legend historians attempt to link them with the Siberian or Asiatic shamans with little enthusiasm. Ariesteaus places
Hyperborea “the land behind Boreas” into the Altai mountains. Abaris is also said to have come from Hyperborea. Later Greek historians *** give him a
Skythian origin. They also call the upper portion of the Danube Hyperborea. (1:129), the ancestral home of the Magyars. The name of Mog-Ruith is in
connection with Magor the Magyar Sungod, the “Ruith” part is connected with the T-R wordgroup represented in the Arthur legend.
The Druids worshipped a God by the name of Esus or Jesu and for this reason they welcomed the first Christian priests. The names of Esus or Jesu are
of “pagan” origin and are identical of the Jász-Magyar peoples’ Jós, Jász, Jizzu names, who was their god of shine, light, represented by the Sun.
Only much later legends connect this land with Joseph of Arimathea who was supposedly accompanied on one of his trade journeys by Jesus. Claudia and
Linus mentioned in Paul’s letters in 63 AD may have originally come from this land.
Geoffrey Ashe originates all great religions from the Hyperboreans in the following order:
1. the Greek cult of Apollo, out of which arose
2. the Pythagorean school
3. the Druids
4. the wisdom literature of the Vedas
5. . Sumerian wisdom literature
6. Wisdom literature of the lama monasteries of the Altai
The only sub-branch of the Pythagorean school outside Greece was in Carthage, which land and people were very much connected with the settling of the
Another common tradition of these places are the labyrinths, the meaning of which still eludes us. The recurring septenary maze in Rockey Valley near
Tintagel is remarkable for its cross design intertwined with the seven lines of the maze. The cross in Magyar symbology is the symbol of light, the
number seven was the holy number of infinity, eternity according to Ipolyi. Its Magyar reading is „Keresztúr”, which is a frequent placename in
Hungary. The name translates into „Round castle of the cross.” There is surviving memory that the Druids were able to see the mountains of the moon,
which presupposes that they had some sort of telescope.
In spiritual matters they busied themselves to bring back the wisdom of the ancient. One of their holy ceremonies were connected with the oak tree and
mistletoe. Their priests stood in the fork of the oak tree akin to the ancient Magyar táltos ceremonies. They believed in immortality. According to
Clement Pythagoras learned from them. But Stonehenge was the product of a pre-Druidic culture. The Druids maintained their organization which has two
branches today. The Albion lodge initiated Winston Churchill in 1908.
Manopus is the name of an Irish divinity who is represented with a harp in his hand. His representation is similar to that of Apollo but he was not
considered a solar deity. This name is related to the Magyar divinity Mén.
Avebury and Silbury is older than Stonehenge according to modern research. Avebury’s name consists of the following Magyar syllables: év (circle) and
vár (bury) giving it a meaning of “round castle”. According to legend Silbury is the resting place of a king named Sil who was buried with golden
armor. This names has a close affinity with the following Magyar words: Szil (pronounce Sil) is a place name in Hungary, a tree called szil-fa which
played part in the ancient religion, Szél-úrfi (young master Wind) who was the symbol of energy and for his pollinating powers of fecundity also. The
constellations of Sellő (mermaid) and Tündérfő (the head of the Fairies) belong into this category also. It is interesting that from these latter two
places the fairies arrive always treesome as Sun, Moon and Star mothers according to Ipolyi’s research. These three mothers may be in the background
of the Celtic triune female figures. The watery surrounding of Silbury can easily be connected with the sellő (mermaid) and hableány (girl of the
waters) concepts. The legend of the Lady in the Lake may point to such ancient affiliations.
The legend of the stone circle at Cornwall calls it “Merry Maidens”, and its stones can be counted only by women. These too come to life to dance in a
circle like Stonehenge’s stones.
Ancient tradition remembers a time when the ancestors were able to fly.
Hengist was the lord of Kent and his name is explained as “horse”. Both, the name of the person and the place is in connection with the Hun nation
name and the word kanca (mare). The horse is important in the symbology of the British isles. Most of these horses are white, like the Uffington
horse, and there was one horse at Tysoe which was red. King Alfred is also connected with the legends of the white horse; the king’s name is explained
as “Elf-rede” which points to the ancient times of the Fairies. He was brave, his laws stopped the bloodshed so popular in those days. In Magyar
legends the white horse was part of the lunar, the red horse with the solar symbology. One of the last legends of the white horse are connected with
Atilla. Mythology of the British isles honored a horse goddess by the name of Epona and her cult was also adopted by the Romans, who honored her as
Regina. Epona’s name seems to echo the name of the sun and light (nap and fény) of the Pannons, an aboriginal culture of Pannonia on the western bank
of the Danube.
Alfred’s son Athelstan lived in Northumbria and ruled Britain between 925-940 AD. A great many stories are attached to his figure. One of these
stories makes mention that he accidentally burned the cakes of a poor man in the fire. This reminds me to the ever-present “cakes baked in ashes”
which are integral part of Magyar stories. Athelstan’s name is related to the Etel, Atil names.
Cerne is the place of worship of a divinity named Helith, Helis or Heil. The Giant of Cerne holds a huge club in his right hand and his phallic
importance is obvious in this handiwork of ancient artists. The name of the place, the name of the divinity, the club he is holding are connected with
the Magyar kör (circle) and kel (arise, i.e. the rising sun), kalló (club) one of the names of the Sungod, Kallós, whose name was preserved in the
names of Kolozsvár, Kolozs, city and place names in Erdély. Both the name and the representation is identical with Hercules of classical mythology,
where the linguistic connection between Hercules and his club does not exist, but which is strong in both the Magyar and the British mythology.
The most authentic of the Lays, lines of sanctuaries is the one connected with Saint Michael. In another paper I discussed the connections of the
“pagan” St. Michael, who was called Mikelu, Makal and similar names and Magor, Makar sungod names of the Magyars. The idea of the lays seems similar
also to the Inka line of sanctuaries laid out in a sun-ray pattern with a center at Cuzko which shows the antiquity and universality of this
The Temple of the Stars are ancient roads around Somerset’s Glastonbury which form the twelve figures of the zodiac. Its discoverer Katharine Maltwood
believes them to e the work of Sumerians but because of their huge size and great antiquity her theory is questioned. Never having been in this region
I am quietly proposing the consideration of the following. These lines may represent frequently traveled roads. In ancient times nighttime wanderers
followed a “map of the sky”: they knew exactly which star points them into the right direction to reach from A to B. Each locale in Hungary had a
representative star. Above Hollókő, the home of King Matthias Corvinus there are two stars visible: King Matthias and his beloved changed after their
death into these stars.
Celtic tradition holds that the name of Brennius who was the lord of the northern part of the Isle came from a god called Bran. This name means raven,
and in fact according to the Magyar law of reciprocity of words which is also present in the English language the two are but one another’s reciprocal
form. The Magyar word for crow, rook (varjú) belongs into the same wordgroup. Bran was the lord of the druidic Beltain, their spring festival. A
divinity called Belinus or Belenos was known in Northern Italy and Southern Gaul, and both of these are identical with the sungod Bál, Béla of the
Welsh legends know of a Beli-Mawr (Beli the Great), or Beli, the son of Manogan in whom they honor the ancestor of their people. The many geographical
names containing the “-billing” affix are connected with the name of Belinus on the British Islands. The Welsh name, their progenitor’s name Beli, the
North Italian Belinos or Belenos deities all lead to Bál, Béla Sungod of the Palóc nation. This name is also in direct relationship with the name of
Palos Scythian prince mentioned by Diodorus Siculus. This name has no known etymology in the Germanic languages.
There is a belief in the mythology of the British Isles according to which male children are able to change to a stag, boar or wolf according to their
will then turn back again into human form. This belief system is in connection with the Magyar Miracle Stag (Csodaszarvas) concept and the mythology
of the boys who turned into a deer. I will return later to this legend when discussing the name of Oisin, later. A variation of this belief system is
still celebrated among some of the American Indians as a testament of mankind’s once unified belief system and culture.
Llyr’s son Manawydan, or Lir’s son Mannan is the name of an Irish Sea-god. In Magyar the lé, lőre (liquid, turbulent liquid) is connected with god
Lir. Mannan reiterates the name of Mén (stallion) who frequently represented the Moon. To link the name of the Moon and the waters is scientifically
correct, since the moon exerts a lot of influence upon the waters, especially the sea.
The Welsh name for the island of Man is Manaw, the Irish name is Mana, Manu, which also are connected with the Magyar Mén. This frequently mentioned
Mén deity name has an enormous linguistic base in the Magyar language. Its comprehensive discussion is again beyond the scope of this paper.
Arthur’s Queen Guinevere appears in three figures occasionally and for this reason she is believed to be the Triune female goddess of the Welsh
mythology. Earlier we brought the Magyar parallel for this phenomena as she may represent the Sun, Moon and Star-mothers of this mythology. She may
also represent the three phases of moon according to the contents of the legend.
Historical and geographic names
Albactanus, king of Scotland was killed in a battle with the Huns 25 years after the arrival of the Trojans to the British Isles around 1070 B.C.
(1:78, 18:157) Later they were expelled from the southern part of the isle by Locrinus, and their leader by the name of Humber drowned in a river
during the battle. This river is called Humber ever since. Ashe tentatively assigns British etymology to this name translating it as “good river”.
Humber’s name seems to be affiliated with the Hun. In the patriarchal society of the Huns the river was always a symbol of masculinity and
procreation: the Magyar words for to pour and semen (ont, ondó) are closely related thus preserving this concept up to this day. To give the Hun hero
Humber’s name to the river seems logical. Ashe believes that the mention of the Huns at this age is incorrect and the result of a later historian’s
error since Atilla’s Huns arrived centuries later in the European arena. The Huns were present as part of the Magyar nations since times immemorial in
the Carpathian valley and have left many traces all over Western Europe from the earliest times on. The word home (hon), homo are a part of the Hun
vocabulary. The full exploration of this line belongs to the future.
Another story tells us about Locrinus’ love for the German girl Estrildis. She was his lover for seven years and bore him a little girl named Habren.
Once in Locrinus’ absence his wife had both mother and child killed by throwing them into a river. As an afterthought the called the river after the
little girl Habren. This name became in the Latin language territory Sabrina, in the British Severn. The etymology of either name is unknown and
cannot be explained based on Indogermanic etymology. The love affair which lasted seven years takes us back into the ancient times when legends were
born. Geoffrey Ashe states the same and that according to ancient legends we are faced here with the guardian spirits of the waters. The Magyar word
hab (water) and hableány (lit.: water-maidens) are part of the language and mythology. The later names of Sabrina and Severn are based on the Magyar
word water (víz) and to seep away (visz). Considering that the water names of the British Isles are pre-British and many of them are identical with
the pre-Árpád water names of Hungary we have to recognize the presence of the ancient Magyar peoples in both places. The western European link of the
Magyar culture has been totally neglected by the foreign dominated historians who still try to maintain the Asian origins of the Hungarians. This act
prevented the Western European nations to know their own history fully.
Molmutin’s son Belinus was the ruling king, his brother Brennius ruled over the Northern lands. Belinus’ name is identical with the name of the Palóc
sungod Béla, which is still a frequent name in Hungary. Originally it meant “white light”. Caswallan, the son of Beli was able to become invisible
with the help of his cloak which, when he was wearing it showed only his sword. This legend originated in the ancient times of the fairies. Brennius’
name belongs to the B-R wordgroup and is related to the Baranya and Baratya the Earth mother and Sun of the Avars. Baranya’s name is preserved in the
name of one of the counties of Hungary.
Tascianus ruled the two last decades BC. On his coins we find his name as Tas which was the name of these seven dukes. His other name was Tenuantius,
the father of Cunobelinus who was also called Cymbeline. He was raised in Caesar’s court. The meaning of his name is explained as “The dog of
Belinus”, or “The faithful follower of God”. On his coins he is portrayed a round headed, mustached gentleman with large, open eyes so often seen in
Scythian representations. The Bel name in the transliteration of his name has been taken as “God”. The first syllable “cuno” is in connection with the
Magyar kún, kan (cuneus, male principle) and would translate into “The Son of Bel”, or “The Son of the Sun”. The Magyar komondor (a large, white guard
dog) belongs into the same wordgroup.
Arviragus was defeated by the Romans at Hampton. He married the daughter of Claudius and later he established Glouchester. His name brings us closer
to the cultic vocabulary of the Avars (virág = flower, ar = a male), who were the horticulturists of their time.
Athelney is the name of the wetlands around Somerset’s Glastonbury. Athel following the analogy of Etel, Itil river and water names means water, but
it is also connected with Atilla’s Magyar name, which is Etele. It is also interesting to note the “atheling” title of the British nobility. The Old
and Middle English variation of this title is the masculine ćtheling and the feminine ćthelu. Considering the fact that legends of the British Isles
talk about Huns way before the arrival of Atilla these names and titles take us back to ancient times also thus preserving an ancient Hun title.
Atilla’s Etele name probably meant a royal prince originally, which was the expected title of the son of Bendeguz. In Anonymus Gesta Hungarorum he is
mentioned as Athile (Anon. 1 and 5). The later doubling of the letter “t” in Atilla’s name rendering it Attila conformed to the accent of the German
historians and writers. His name may also have meant that he descended from the line of the Royal Scythians. At the time of Álmos Emese’s dream is
connected with the Atil-Etil-Itil related legends. She dreamt that from her womb a huge river ensued which engulfed the land and out of this a mighty
nation will be born. Ipolyi sums up the traditions connected with the Etele name as follows: “...the Atel, Etel name is identical with with the name
of the river Etel in Etelköz which flowed in that Magyar territory. This can be also observed in the case of another ancient progenitor’s name which
was Tana and the river Don, or Tanais is identical with his. This also reminds us of the legendary descendancy of heroes from deities on an elemental
level which we also find in the later saga of the hero Álmos, and also in the Scythian legends which talk about Targitaus, the ancestor of the
Skythans as a descendant of Zeus and the nymph of the river Borysthenes (Herodot 4,5).” Returning to Tana’s name “...Tana, the ancient father of our
(i.e. Magyar) chronicles may well be the first Skythan ruler with the same Tana name... In our language tanya means a settled mode of living, a
permanent base, and as we have seen it may mean a “seat”, settlement meaning the ’descensus’ of the earlier generation.” (9: vol.I:203)
Iona was the name of an island which was the holy land and burial ground of the Pikts, Scots and the inhabitants of Northumbria. Later it became the
northern center of Christianity. Iona is another name of our Jász people. This name is also connected with mourning (gyász).