Petroglyphs, Plasma phenomena and the Norway event.

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posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 01:11 PM
So on the 8th I was doing some searching for info on cosmic rays on the American Physics Institute website and I came across a very interesting title of a paper.

The paper is here, part 2 is separate from this one, the link is on the right hand side.

Then I did an image search for spiral petroglyphs, and I saw all the spirals. This guy has found and GPS marked over 4 MILLION of these carvings worldwide, mostly in caves and around mountains.

A sample from the published paper.

The discovery that objects from the Neolithic or Early Bronze Age carry patterns associated with high-current Z-pinches provides a possible insight into the origin and meaning of these ancient symbols produced by man. This paper directly compares the graphical and radiation data from high-current Z-pinches to these patterns. The paper focuses primarily, but not exclusively, on petroglyphs. It is found that a great many archaic petroglyphs can be classified according to plasma stability and instability data. As the same morphological types are found worldwide, the comparisons suggest the occurrence of an intense aurora, as might be produced if the solar wind had increased between one and two orders of magnitude, millennia ago.

ON July 9, 1962, the United States detonated a 1.4-megaton
thermonuclear device in the atmosphere 400 km above
Johnston Island. The event produced a plasma whose initial
spherical shape striated within a few minutes as the plasma electrons and ions streamed along the Earth’s magnetic field to produce an artificial aurora.

Concomitant with the artificial aurora was a degradation of
radio communications over wide areas of the Pacific, lightning discharges, destruction of electronics in monitoring satellites, and an electromagnetic pulse that affected some power circuitry as far away as Hawaii.


A. Lightning
Strong electrical discharges are associated with intense inflowing charged particles. This is the lightning most often seenin connection with atmospheric discharges whose tortuosity are the jagged and complex light strokes seen in the sky and accompanied by the sound of the shock wave.

B. Heteromacs
Kukushkin and Rantsev-Kartinov at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia, found that, based on fractal dimension analysis of experimental data from plasma pinches, electric current-carrying plasmas are a random fractal medium. The basic building block of this medium was identified by Kukushkin and Rantsev-Kartinov to be an almost-closed helical filamentary plasma configuration called a heteromac [40].

Petroglyphs frequently appear on the face
of rocks at heights and under conditions which seemed to
render their production impossible without the appliances of
advanced civilization, a large outlay, and the exercise of unusual skill.” Hence, like Humboldt, Mallory perhaps unconsciously subscribes to the idea that petroglyphs are other than primitive ritualistic scratchings [43].

A discovery that the basic petroglyph morphologies are the
same as those recorded in extremely high-energy-density discharges has opened up a means to unravel the origin of these apparently crude, misdrawn, and jumbled figures found in uncounted numbers around the Earth.

Drawn in heteromac style (Fig. 12), these ancient patterns
could mimic and replicate high-energy phenomena that would be recorded on a nonerasable plasma display screen. Many petroglyphs, apparently recorded several millennia ago, have a plasma discharge or instability counterpart, some on a one-to-one or overlay basis. More striking is that the images recorded on rock are the only images found in extreme energy density experiments; no other morphology types or patterns are observed [46], [67].

[edit on 11-12-2009 by Xenus]

posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 02:15 PM
Facinating possibilites exist, regarding the possible connection between ancient petroglyphs and these magneto/electrical visual phenomenon. I read something awhile back about the same topic, and it seemed to make a lot of sense.

The petroglyph I was reading about at the time, called the "squatter man" is even sketched at the proper angles vs. geographical locations of the petroglyphs which suggests that the phenomenon was polar, and visible nearly world-wide!



Good post, I hope it gets jumped on a little more.

posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 02:23 PM
I'm sorry. I consider myself a very smart person, however, I always have a hard time understanding the type of language this paper uses. Can you please explain exactly what it means? Thanks a bunch!

posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 03:01 PM

Originally posted by nunya13
I'm sorry. I consider myself a very smart person, however, I always have a hard time understanding the type of language this paper uses. Can you please explain exactly what it means? Thanks a bunch!

Unfortunately you need some understanding of physics and electricity and the electromagnetic spectrum, as well as plasma (which is the 4th state of matter "Plasma consists of a collection of free-moving electrons and ions - atoms that have lost electrons.")

Kristian Birkeland
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Kristian Olaf Bernhard Birkeland

Kristian Birkeland, 1900
Born December 13, 1867
Christiania, Kingdom of Norway
Died June 15, 1917 (aged 49)
Tokyo, Japan
Residence Norway
Citizenship Kingdom of Norway (1867–1917)
Ethnicity Norwegian
Fields Physics
Institutions The Royal Frederick University
Known for Birkeland current
Birkeland-Eyde process
Reserch on Aurora borealis

Kristian Olaf Birkeland (13 December 1867 – 15 June 1917) was a Norwegian scientist. He is best remembered as the person who first elucidated the nature of the Aurora borealis. In order to fund his research on the aurorae, he invented the electromagnetic cannon and the Birkeland-Eyde process of fixing nitrogen from the air. Birkeland was nominated for the Nobel Prize seven times.[1][2]

A Birkeland current is a specific magnetic field aligned current in the Earth’s magnetosphere which flows from the magnetotail towards the Earth on the dawn side and in the other direction on the dusk side of the magnetosphere. Lately, the term Birkeland currents has been expanded by some authors to include magnetic field aligned currents in general space plasmas. In the Earth’s magnetosphere, these currents are driven by changes in the topology of the magnetotail (e.g. during substorms) and when they reach the upper atmosphere, they create the aurora Borealis and Australis. The currents are closed through the auroral electrojet, which flows perpendicular to the local magnetic field in the ionosphere.

The currents were predicted in 1903 by Norwegian explorer and physicist Kristian Birkeland, who undertook expeditions into the Arctic Circle to study the aurora. He discovered, using simple magnetic field measure instruments, that when the aurora appeared the needles of the magnetometers changed direction. This could only imply that currents were flowing in the atmosphere above. He theorized that somehow the Sun was a cathode ray[citation needed], and corpuscules from a solar wind entered the Earth’s magnetic field and created currents, thereby creating the aurora. This view was scorned at by other researchers[citation needed], and it took until the 1960s before sounding rockets, launched into the auroral region showed that indeed the currents posited by Birkeland existed. In honour of his ideas, these currents were named Birkeland currents. A good description of the discoveries by Birkeland is given in the book Northern Lights by Lucy Jago.

Professor Emeritus of the Alfvén Laboratory in Sweden, Carl-Gunne Fälthammar wrote (1986): "A reason why Birkeland currents are particularly interesting is that, in the plasma forced to carry them, they cause a number of plasma physical processes to occur (waves, instabilities, fine structure formation). These in turn lead to consequences such as acceleration of charged particles, both positive and negative, and element separation (such as preferential ejection of oxygen ions). Both of these classes of phenomena should have a general astrophysical interest far beyond that of understanding the space environment of our own Earth."

Interesting to note the Norway, plasma, peace prize connection.

posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 04:31 PM
Plasma technology are used by us and russian army for 30 years.

The "weapon of choice".

Do you think russia or the usa, will let the chinese become more sophisticated in this field (the chinese and their mach 10 multiple nuclear nuke , and other good toys)

A high energy FEL (Free electron laser) is really efficient (compared to other techs to create plasma : this has been proove recently )

The fel will recycle part of the energy with (new) supra conductor (than can runs at ambiant temperature) : the laser/plasma efficiency is exponential.

Now if they can understand the plasma more than us ( and this is a supposition) : they can maybe condensate the plasma to create a "missile". ( with a superior speed than other missile ).

( remind you star wars , and their laser ? the fel tech would create a plasma : as the "laser" in star wars : but they can also use it has real laser )

"Free Electron Lasers use superconducting electron accelerators to produce high-power laser beams," said Michael Del Checcolo, vice president of Engineering for Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems. "In the future, such high power lasers could be used to instantaneously engage targets at long ranges, enhancing the U.S. Navy's ability to combat enemies and threats at sea."

Raytheon Awarded Contract for Office of Naval Research's Free Electron Laser Program

[edit on 11-12-2009 by psychederic]

[edit on 11-12-2009 by psychederic]

posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 05:10 PM
The turbulences will appear naturraly in spiral.

You don't need the missile/rocket to follow the trajectory seen on this photos : what you see are turbulence ( in my opinion ).

( and maybe the turbulences would appear more with a plasma in a cold air environment ? theoritically yes. )

a Naval Surface Warfare Center test firing in January 2008, leaving a plume of plasma behind the projectile.

[edit on 11-12-2009 by psychederic]

posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 05:19 PM
To take it back to the petroglyphs.

There is a new documentary more less stating the hypothesis of that paper the OP speaks of. This is part 2. Part one is not so informative, but worth if you're really into it.

If you want to you can skip to 5:00 where it begins to talk about the plasma dynamics and how it relates to our ancestors.

Part three.

Now why would you be testing experimental missiles near Norway when the US pres just happened to be there?..... What are you trying to start some static, literally.

I don't believe that was a malfunctioning missile. There is not enough chaos in those pictures. Everything is too perfect, especially the little black hole effect at the end of the videos. There always changes in local temp and wind patterns etc that would have disrupted the patterns. It was cool though.

I remember a statement made by Putin during the placing of so-called defense missiles on the border of Poland and the Ukraine.

He said that Russia was confident it could stop anything the US sent at them. Maybe this was a demonstration.

Have a good one.

posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 07:44 PM
Not enough chaos? The weather is no match for the scale of, and forces in, what we saw over Norway. Of course the explanation of a failed missile test makes perfect sense. Anyone with a rudimentary understanding of physics could understand that.

In case you don't have such an understanding, here's a video showing why you'll have to do a lot better than talking about chaos to debunk the steady stream of evidence explaining the phenomenon's origins.


posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 07:47 PM
reply to post by wylee

AGAIN this happened a day before ON WENS

prez Obama got there early THURS

This lie needs to quit being wielded NOW

posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 08:07 PM
Thanks for the link.

I was wrong, Thanks for showing the error of my ways, live long and prosper.

Did you check out the videos. I guess it was just a really calm night because the sprial formation was not as uniform and changed as it went.

posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 09:15 PM
Excellent find! I heartily agree ancient man may have tried to capture images that he saw in the sky.
Symbols are also the product of basic developmental stages of graphic representation. Certain shapes evoke simplicity and as such have a basic pull for all people. Just as children begin to portray nearly all objects as round shapes and learn to elaborate on them, the artwork of neolithic man follows a similar developmental sequence.
That said, it is also just as likey that some cro-magnon saw a giant spiral in sky and decided he (or she) needed to carve this image into something that he could show others. This act could have binding inter-tribal and religious significance in showing a shared recognition of an awesome celestial event. Maybe they didn;t know what it meant but everyone thought it was awesome and they could remember and perhaps even deify it through this new symbol .
Starred and flagged, this is very important and timely research.

posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 10:51 PM
We're going to have the electric-universe mob descend on this thread in force very soon. Some are here already; the rest won't be long. Before they turn up, I'd like to put in my two cents' worth on behalf of real physics.

Here, take a look at this: Image search results for 'petroglyph'.

As you'll see if you look through those results, petroglyphs come in a very wide variety of shapes. It is true that a few of these do resemble plasma discharges, but most don't. Even the ubiquitous 'squatter man' glyph, the one Peratt and company liken to a 'Z-pinch discharge' in the OP link, appears more often than not in a form that makes it much clearer that the intended representation is not of some great glowing shape in the sky but simply a man with exaggeratedly large genitals.

I'm not saying our ancient ancestors didn't see some crazy, catastrophic auroral event in the sky. I don't know enough to say that; maybe they did. And it's certainly fun to visualize all those cavemen staring up in wonder at some great, glowing mystery in the heavens. But there are simpler and more likely explanations for petroglyphs, and we should always consider these first before letting ourselves be seduced by more exotic possibilities.

* * *

reply to post by nunya13

It is true that you need a fair amount of physics to understand in detail what's being discussed here, but the source Xenus directed you to is part of a crank site. Don't risk being misinformed; you'll be on much firmer ground if you start with the Wikipedia entry on plasma.

But really, all you really need to know is this: apart from the three states of matter most familiar to you--solid, liquid and gas--there is a fourth, plasma. Plasma is basically a very thin gas, almost a vacuum, in which some of the atoms are electrically charged. We call these electrically charged atoms ions. Ions don't stay charged for very long, and in the process of losing their charge and becoming proper atoms again, they emit light.

Ions are electrically conductive. In the presence of an electromagnetic field, they move and form shapes based on the contours of the field. This is the effect that makes neon lights and plasma TVs work. It is also what causes the auroras, the Northern and Southern lights.

Auroras are created by charged particles (mostly protons and electrons) streaming out of the Sun (you may have heard of the 'solar wind'; this is what it is). Some of these particles get trapped by Earth's magnetic field and collide with oxygen and nitrogen atoms high up in our atmosphere, where the air is very thin, causing these atoms to ionize. These ions then lose their charge, becoming atoms again and emitting light in the process. This light is the aurora.

Now what these guys are saying, basically, is that tens of thousands of years ago, something happened in the sky to cause parts of Earth's atmosphere to become hugely ionized--anything from ten to a hundred times more strongly charged than even the strongest solar wind today can make them. The result, they reckon, was a lot of huge, bright, freaky patterns in the sky--patterns that follow the characteristic shape of strong plasma discharges, such as spirals, and filamentary discharges that can sometimes look a lot like the very common 'squatting man' petroglyph.

So, did it happen? Did our ancestors look up and see strange glowing shapes in the sky (possibly accompanied by sounds, which is possible if the discharges were very energetic)? And did they then, awed and amazed, scratch these shapes on the rocks about them? Well, who knows. Maybe they did, maybe they didn't.

It would help if there was some unrelated evidence for such an atmospheric phenomenon, or for the solar or other event that might have caused it. As far as I know, there isn't, so this is all speculation. Enjoyable, aesthetically inspiring, exciting speculation--but speculation all the same.

posted on Dec, 11 2009 @ 11:07 PM
Please take a look at my thread (link is in signature) that relates to some of the stuff you talked about in the OP. I did some fire spinning for the first time in my life, and when I went back and saw the pictures, I noticed some very awesome symbols that I do not even remember creating. Please take a look at the thread. It's all very mesmerizing, especially since the reason I found those fire pictures again on my computer was because of the recent spiral event in the sky.

posted on Dec, 12 2009 @ 12:57 AM
Will check it out later tomorrow, a bit busy today, just wanted to point out that the website was given to me by Dr. Perrat and he also specifically warned me away from anyone pushing the electric universe theory.

Plasma cosmology and plasma physics are the real deal, backed by decades of experiments starting from the first nuclear device during the Los Alamos Trinity test. Perrat is no lightweight when it comes to physics and electrical engineering.

The website itself is sponsored by the DOE, NSF and other organizations. You can check his credentials online, it's a big list.

posted on Dec, 12 2009 @ 07:57 AM
reply to post by Xenus

You are correct; plasma physics is indeed a very well-founded branch of the subject. 'Plasma cosmology', however, is at odds with the current scientific consensus, most vividly so in its hypothesis of star formation, which leaves out the effects of gravity and nuclear fusion.

Examples of the very speculative nature of Alfvén's conclusions include factually inaccurate explanations for star formation using Birkeland currents.

That quote comes from the Wikipedia entry on plasma cosmology, which offers a good and scientifically literate survey of the subject.

As for, it is a site maintained by a group of electrical and electronic engineers who are doing their best to promote this alternative approach to astrophysics; however, their ideas have made no headway in physics because (I understand) they involve massive extrapolations of scale, fail to make any testable predictions and do not account for many physical phenomena--unlike the current relativity-based model, which is time-tested and well founded.

[edit on 12/12/09 by Astyanax]

posted on Dec, 13 2009 @ 01:11 PM
The IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society (NPSS) is a transnational group of about 3000 professional engineers and scientists.[1] The IEEE-affiliated Society sponsors 5 major annual, and six biennial conferences and symposia. It also sponsors or co-sponsor 4 peer-reviewed journals.[2]

The IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization with more than 360,000 members in around 175 countries.

In physics and chemistry, plasma is a gas, in which a certain proportion of its particles are ionized. The presence of a non-negligible number of charge carriers makes the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to electromagnetic fields. Plasma therefore has properties quite unlike those of solids, liquids, or gases and is considered to be a distinct state of matter. Plasma typically takes the form of neutral gas-like clouds, as seen, for example, in the case of stars. Like gas, plasma does not have a definite shape or a definite volume unless enclosed in a container; unlike gas, in the influence of a magnetic field, it may form structures such as filaments, beams and double layers (see section 3, below).

Plasma was first identified in a Crookes tube, and so described by Sir William Crookes in 1879 (he called it "radiant matter").[1] The nature of the Crookes tube "cathode ray" matter was subsequently identified by British physicist Sir J.J. Thomson in 1897,[2] and dubbed "plasma" by Irving Langmuir in 1928,[3] perhaps because it reminded him of a blood plasma. Langmuir wrote:

Except near the electrodes, where there are sheaths containing very few electrons, the ionized gas contains ions and electrons in about equal numbers so that the resultant space charge is very small. We shall use the name plasma to describe this region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons.[3]

Although the underlying equations governing plasmas are relatively simple, plasma behavior is extraordinarily varied and subtle: the emergence of unexpected behavior from a simple model is a typical feature of a complex system. Such systems lie in some sense on the boundary between ordered and disordered behavior, and cannot typically be described either by simple, smooth, mathematical functions, or by pure randomness. The spontaneous formation of interesting spatial features on a wide range of length scales is one manifestation of plasma complexity. The features are interesting, for example, because they are very sharp, spatially intermittent (the distance between features is much larger than the features themselves), or have a fractal form. Many of these features were first studied in the laboratory, and have subsequently been recognized throughout the universe. Examples of complexity and complex structures in plasmas include:


Striations or string-like structures[14] are seen in many plasmas, like the plasma ball (image above), the aurora,[15] lightning,[16] electric arcs, solar flares,[17] and supernova remnants.[18] They are sometimes associated with larger current densities, and the interaction with the magnetic field can form a magnetic rope structure.[19] (See also Plasma pinch)

Filamentation also refers the self-focusing of a high power laser pulse. At high powers, the nonlinear part of the index of refraction becomes important and causes a higher index of refraction in the center of the laser beam, where the laser is brighter than at the edges, causing a feedback that focuses the laser even more. The tighter focused laser has a higher peak brightness (irradiance) that forms a plasma. The plasma has an index of refraction lower than one, and causes a defocusing of the laser beam. The interplay of the focusing index of refraction, and the defocusing plasma makes the formation of a long filament of plasma that can be microns to kilometers in length.[20]

posted on Dec, 13 2009 @ 01:13 PM
Shocks or double layers

Plasma properties change rapidly (within a few Debye lengths) across a two-dimensional sheet in the presence of a (moving) shock or (stationary) double layer. Double layers involve localized charge separation, which causes a large potential difference across the layer, but does not generate an electric field outside the layer. Double layers separate adjacent plasma regions with different physical characteristics, and are often found in current carrying plasmas. They accelerate both ions and electrons.
Electric fields and circuits

Quasineutrality of a plasma requires that plasma currents close on themselves in electric circuits. Such circuits follow Kirchhoff's circuit laws, and possess a resistance and inductance. These circuits must generally be treated as a strongly coupled system, with the behavior in each plasma region dependent on the entire circuit. It is this strong coupling between system elements, together with nonlinearity, which may lead to complex behavior. Electrical circuits in plasmas store inductive (magnetic) energy, and should the circuit be disrupted, for example, by a plasma instability, the inductive energy will be released as plasma heating and acceleration. This is a common explanation for the heating which takes place in the solar corona. Electric currents, and in particular, magnetic-field-aligned electric currents (which are sometimes generically referred to as "Birkeland currents"), are also observed in the Earth's aurora, and in plasma filaments.
Cellular structure

Narrow sheets with sharp gradients may separate regions with different properties such as magnetization, density, and temperature, resulting in cell-like regions. Examples include the magnetosphere, heliosphere, and heliospheric current sheet. Hannes Alfvén wrote: "From the cosmological point of view, the most important new space research discovery is probably the cellular structure of space. As has been seen in every region of space which is accessible to in situ measurements, there are a number of 'cell walls', sheets of electric currents, which divide space into compartments with different magnetization, temperature, density, etc ."[21]
Critical ionization velocity

The critical ionization velocity is the relative velocity between an ionized plasma and a neutral gas above which a runaway ionization process takes place. The critical ionization process is a quite general mechanism for the conversion of the kinetic energy of a rapidly streaming gas into ionization and plasma thermal energy. Critical phenomena in general are typical of complex systems, and may lead to sharp spatial or temporal features.
Ultracold plasma

It is possible to create ultracold plasmas, by using lasers to trap and cool neutral atoms to temperatures of 1 mK or lower. Another laser then ionizes the atoms by giving each of the outermost electrons just enough energy to escape the electrical attraction of its parent ion.

The key point about ultracold plasmas is that by manipulating the atoms with lasers, the kinetic energy of the liberated electrons can be controlled. Using standard pulsed lasers, the electron energy can be made to correspond to a temperature of as low as 0.1 K, a limit set by the frequency bandwidth of the laser pulse. The ions, however, retain the millikelvin temperatures of the neutral atoms. This type of non-equilibrium ultracold plasma evolves rapidly, and many fundamental questions about its behavior remain unanswered. Experiments conducted so far have revealed surprising dynamics and recombination behavior which are pushing the limits of our knowledge of plasma physics.[citation needed] One of the metastable states of strongly nonideal plasma is Rydberg matter which forms upon condensation of excited atoms.

And more at

If you understand what plasma is then you can see it everywhere, especially in "space".

posted on Dec, 13 2009 @ 01:28 PM
Funny, plasma cosmology seems to explain many things in the universe easily and simply, without having to resort to exotic imaginings like dark matter and dark energy.

This Chandra image is colorized to highlight a population of point-like "ultraluminous" X-ray sources in M82, a starburst galaxy 11 million light years from Earth. In the image, red represents the low energy band, green intermediate, and blue the highest observed energies. The white and yellow sources are those that emit significant amounts of both low- and high-energy X-rays. The ultraluminous sources, which emit ten to several hundred times more X-ray power than similar sources in our Galaxy, are believed to be either massive black holes, or black holes that are beaming energy toward Earth. The brightest point-like source, located near the center of the image, is the most powerful ultraluminous source detected in any galaxy to date.

Observations of M82 and other starburst galaxies suggest that the origin of ultraluminous sources is related to a burst of star formation triggered by a collision with another galaxy. Astronomers suspect that M82 had a close encounter with a large galaxy, M81 in the last 100 million years.

The diffuse red cloud in the image is caused by multi-million degree gas flowing out of the central region of M82.

Strong X-Ray Emission from High-Temperature Plasmas Produced
by Intense Irradiation of Clusters

T. Ditmire,1 T. Donnelly,2 R. W. Falcone,2 and M. D. Perry1
1Laser Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-443, Livermore, California 94550
2Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720
(Received 14 June 1995)
The interaction of an intense laser pulse with large s,100 Åd clusters present in pulsed gas jets is shown to produce novel plasmas with electron temperatures far in excess of that predicted by above threshold ionization theory. The enhanced absorption of the laser light by the dense clusters results in the production of high ion charge states via collisional ionization resulting in strong x-ray emission from the hot plasma.

[edit on 13-12-2009 by Xenus]

posted on Dec, 13 2009 @ 03:10 PM

NASA's Cassini spacecraft created this image of the bubble around our solar system based on emissions of particles known as energetic neutral atoms. These particles are emitted from the boundary of the heliosphere, our sun's region of influence, as solar wind interacts with the interstellar medium. The solar wind, not shown, is a steady stream of particles emitted from our sun. The interstellar medium is the matter in between stars in our local corner of the Milky Way galaxy. Data for this map was captured by the Ion and Neutral Camera on Cassini's Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument between late 2003 and summer 2009.

This image shows high-energy particles in the 6 kilo-electron-volt range, with red indicating the hottest, most high-pressure regions and purple the coolest, lowest-pressure regions. The map was generated based on galactic coordinates, which centers the map around our sun and lines up the plane of our galaxy with the map's equator.

The label "nose" indicates the direction of the flow of interstellar plasma, or hot, ionized matter. The label "tail" indicates the view behind us. V1 and V2 indicate the locations of NASA's Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft. "ISMF" denotes the estimated direction of the Interstellar Magnetic Field, which surrounds our solar system and pushes against the heliosphere at an angle. Some areas are colored gray to indicate incomplete coverage because of interference from the sun and Saturn.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab manages the mission for the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The magnetospheric imaging instrument was designed, built and is operated by an international team led by the Applied Physics Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Md.

Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) are particles with no charge that move relatively fast. ENAs are formed from particles that are ionized, meaning they have lost electrons. Sometimes, these ions interact with neutral atoms taking the electrons from those neutral atoms and becoming neutral themselves. Since the particle is no longer charged (it has equal numbers of protons, and electrons) it no longer reacts to the magnetic fields, and travels in a straight line from the spot where the interaction occurred.

I think you will find that it is you, Astyanax, who do not have any real understanding in cosmology. NASA and all the other space agencies worldwide know, anyone working with nuclear explosions knows, anyone who has ever seen plasma and seen images of galaxies and nebulae, know.

[edit on 13-12-2009 by asala]

posted on Dec, 13 2009 @ 03:23 PM

What is plasma?

Plasma is a state of matter. Everything in the Universe is made of “stuff” called matter. All matter is made of atoms, and it can exist in different states. Many people are familiar with three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas.

Atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons have a positive charge, neutrons have a neutral charge and they both make up the atom's nucleus. Electrons have a negative charge. They surround the nucleus of the atom.

In a solid, the atoms are tightly bound together. Solids have a fixed volume and shape. Heating up a solid will often cause it to change to a liquid. Liquids have atoms that are less tightly bonded together. They have a fixed volume, but not a fixed shape. Adding heat energy to a liquid will often transform it to a gas. Gasses have neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape. Their atoms are not bonded together and they move around freely.

When heat energy is added to a gas, it begins to move around faster. When enough heat energy is added to a gas it can become a plasma.

Plasma is similar to gas, but its particles have a different structure and charge. Plasma forms when a gas becomes extremely hot. When this happens, the gas’ atoms gain lots of energy. This energy causes the electrons to detach from the nuclei of the gas’ atoms. When the negatively charged electrons detach, the positively charged protons and neutral particles called neutrons in the nuclei are left. These positively charged nuclei are called ions. When a gas is so hot that the electrons and protons split apart to form electrons and ions, we say that the gas has been ionized. Plasma is an ionized gas.

Plasma has some interesting properties because the particles are ionized. When charged particles move, as they do in a plasma, they create magnetic fields. These magnetic fields can then cause the moving plasma particles to travel in certain directions and paths. The particles travel in spiraling paths like corkscrews.

What is the Sun made of?

The Sun is mostly made of two elements, called Hydrogen and Helium, in a state of matter called plasma.

It's time to take plasma seriously. Not the electric universe theory as found on the net, but PLASMA PHYSICS and COSMOLOGY. Just because you fail to understand what plasma is and how it works doesn't make it some sci-fi fantasy. Just because you ignore it or don't understand it, doesn't mean it's not real. This is SCIENCE, albeit the least understood branch of science due to the complexity. Now if only I could get a straight answer regarding the incoming dense plasma, if it's already in our solar system it's only a matter of time before it reaches us. We've already been seeing the effects, look at the sun, it's still slumbering away...

[edit on 13-12-2009 by asala]

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