posted on Dec, 10 2009 @ 04:55 PM
5. There are numerous pre-Clovis sites in South America--but none appear to be the progenitors of Clovis. By the time of the first Clovis sites,
around 11,500 years ago, all areas of South America were settled; from coastal Venezuela Taima-Taima site of 13,000 years before the present; Andean
Colombia Tibitó site of 11,700 ybp, Peruvian Andes sites of Pachamachay (11,800 ypb) and Pikimachay (14,000 ybp), Monte Verde at the southern tip of
Chile at 12,500 ybp; the Patagonian grasslands sites of Los Toldos of 12,600 ybp, Piedra Museo 12,200 ybp, and Alero Tres Arroyos, 11,800 ybp;
Brazil's Lapa de Boquete at 12,100 ypb, and the Amazonian rain forest site of Pedra Pintada, 11,100 ypb.
4. One possible reason for the long-term belief in Clovis as the first culture in the Americas may be the result of poor preservation of non-lithic
materials such as wood, ivory, bone, textiles, and other perishable items. Evidence for the existence of these types of materials are present at
Meadowcroft Rockshelter and Monte Verde, but have been largely ignored in the severe criticism of these two sites over the decades since their first
identification.Yes, Adovasio is still ticked off.
3. Clovis wasn't first in North America either. There are sites predating Clovis in several locations around the North American continent, including
in Wisconsin at the Schaefer (12,300 years before the present), Hebior (12,500 ybp), Mud Lake (13,400 ybp), and Fenske (13,500 ybp) mammoth butchering
sites; in Virginia at Cactus Hill (15,700 bp) and the Saltville site (14,500-13,500 years bp); at Meadowcroft Rockshelter, Pennsylvania (16,000 ybp);
at La Sena, Nebraska (18-19,000 years bp) and Lovewell, Kansas (18,000 years bp); and at Big Eddy in Missouri (12,000 bp). And that doesn't even
mention any of the older sites yet in South America, such as Pedra Furada (32,000) or Monte Verde I, (33,400 ybp) or or Bluefish Caves (23,000 ybp) in
2. But some researchers still believe in Clovis first.
1. For the last fifteen or twenty years there have been occasional comparisons of Clovis technology to the Middle Paleolithic Solutrean cultures of
the Iberian peninsula. Dennis Stanford gave the banquet speech at Clovis and Beyond, hypothesizing that Clovis in the Americas represents colonization
of the eastern American seaboard by boat across the North Atlantic, following along the ice shelf that in the late Pleistocene stretched from Ireland
to Nova Scotia. All of the tools and techniques of Clovis can be found in Solutrean assemblages, including thin projectile points, wedges, very long
thin bifaces, outré passé flaking, red ochre, gouge-eyed needles, bone and ivory projectiles points, bevelled ivory foreshafts, decorated bone rods,
limestone palettes. And the journey would have been 2,500 miles by boat along the ice shelf.
The Clovis and Beyond conference was a tremendous success, and you will hear more in this space concerning the findings.