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...which raises an interesting question: could an advanced alien civilisation already be cruising the Milky Way aboard black hole starships?
...so perhaps looking for black hole starships would a fruitful way to hunt for extraterrestrial intelligence. As the black hole powering the starship emits its Hawking radiation, it would shudder and send a ripple through space-time. We might be able to detect such ripples, otherwise known as gravitational waves, here on Earth.
Originally posted by TrueBrit
... [it] would have to be absolutely bleedin enourmous , just to contain the energy required to create such a thing in the first place. How the hell would you get that in orbit ? Would you build it in space?
The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement. The scale is only theoretical and in terms of an actual civilization highly speculative; however, it puts energy consumption of an entire civilization in a cosmic perspective. It was first proposed in 1964 by the Soviet Russian astronomer Nikolai Kardashev. The scale has three designated categories called Type I, II, and III. These are based on the amount of usable energy a civilization has at its disposal, and the degree of space colonization. In general terms, a Type I civilization has achieved mastery of the resources of its home planet, Type II of its solar system, and Type III of its galaxy.
An FTL propulsion system - based on Alcubierre’s warp drive - that utilizes dark energy to propel a spacecraft faster than light has been proposed, and could revolutionize space travel according to an article on the website of Cosmos Magazine . The concept is supported by the calculations of several physicists at Baylor University in Waco, Texas. Comparable to the warp drive concept of Star Trek, their theory states that a spacecraft could travel at warp velocity in a bubble of space-time, by manipulating dark energy — the mysterious invisible force allegedly responsible for the observed acceleration in the expansion of the universe. Essentially, the spacecraft would remain in the same place, while space-time ahead of the craft would shrink, expanding again behind it.
In 1996, NASA established the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program, which sponsored some speculative work on warp drives. This program was discontinued in 2002[curiously IMO).
While thought experiments on the wilder shores of theoretical physics continue to be formed, no scheme that may allow travel at warp velocity has yet been devised that has also been accepted by mainstream science. Some physicists have proposed a model of FTL travel, formulated in the context of Lorentzian manifolds, which are used in general relativity to construct space-time models. However, contrary to a common misconception, these models are in no sense solutions to the Einstein field equation, and they give no knowledge as to how a warp bubble might actually be established.
Can we ever achieve speed faster than light? Yes, say contemporary physicists disagreeing with Einstein’s theory of relativity. Advanced alien civilizations are tunneling through with speed much faster than light all the time. The problem is skeptics question such happenings with old non-contemporary Physics.
In recent years, some physicists have conducted experiments in which faster-than-light (FTL) speeds were measured. On the other hand, Einstein's theory of special relativity gives light speed as the absolute speed limit for matter and information.
The Berkeley group gives a general overview of their research at physics.berkley.edu .
In one of the experiments, where a single photon tunneled through a barrier and its tunneling speed (not a signal speed!) was 1.7 times light speed, is described in Steinberg, A.M., Kwiat, P.G. & R.Y. Chiao 1993: "Measurement of the Single-Photon Tunneling Time" in Physical Review Letter 71, S. 708—711.
Scientists in recent days are finding that exceeding speed of light through wave propagation in a tunneling experiment is nothing new. The scientific think tanks are now confident that advanced alien civilizations are constantly speeding through the wormhole tunnels with speeds exceeding 100 times that of light.
That is how the intergalactic travel across 100 light years can take place in less than a day and may be in a few hours. Of course the wormholes themselves bend time and space. The tunnel speed of 100 times faster than light is fast speed when you consider that time and space is attached to each other as evident in our physical universe. But that speed is easy to achieve once you can detach time from space and learn to speed in space slightly above the speed of light. Fast forwarding detached time spatial creates the final magic – it provides the ultimate speed multiplier and one achieve the speed faster that 100 times that of light.
There is another trick to the whole thing. Extraterrestrial aliens of advanced order can utilize the wave propagation for linear transportation of an entity from the physical universe or the parallel universe through the wormhole. The biggest challenge for them is not the speed but keeping track of space and time spatial characteristics.
There are fundamental problems facing physicists. First, the real world is a complicated place so simplifying assumptions have to be made in choosing a mathematical model. The choice is crucial for the following steps. Second, mathematical rules are applied to the symbols as a tool that may provide insights into the physical phenomenon under investigation. Third, the results must be translated back into ordinary language.
In steps one and three physicists are generally far from perfect. In the first step, the “when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail” tendency is a trap. For example, Eddington applied an inappropriate model of gas behavior inside stars that allowed him to dismiss electrical effects. In the second step there is a tendency in astrophysics for the mathematics to run into infinities. A process euphemistically called “renormalization” is used to deal with this problem. But as any high school student knows, there is nothing normal about infinity. Introducing infinity into an equation, effectively dividing by zero, allows you to “prove” that 1 = 2.
Running into infinities in mathematical models should result in questioning the appropriateness of the model and the limits of its applicability. However, astrophysicists simply plug in a measured result and carry on. But it is the last step that exposes physicists at their worst. Here, they use words or phrases, which have real meaning, in a whimsical or sloppy way when they mean something more mathematically abstruse. For example, using the word “dimension” when referring to more than the three spatial dimensions, as if a ruler can also be used to measure the extra dimensions. It gives rise to terms like four-dimensional “warped space” and “space-time,” or sometimes that weird cloth, the “fabric of space-time.” We also have the logically indefensible “parallel universe.” None make physical or logical sense.
The black hole is a choice example where all three steps have failed. In the first step, gravity is the only tool considered. For example, from a graduate textbook on astrophysics*: “No known physical force can stop the self-swallowing of mass that makes a black hole.” That is a model-dependent declaration. The force of gravity is effectively zero when compared to the electric force. If you allow for the electrical structure of matter, the almost 2,000 fold difference in mass of the electron and proton will ensure that in a strong gravitational field charge separation will operate to prevent compression. Charge separation prevents the collapse of stars. Exotic theoretical objects like neutron stars and black holes are impossible. Even internal nuclear fires are unnecessary to sustain a star. The standard model of stars fails if the wrong tool, gravity, is used exclusively.
In the second step, one infinity is used to counter another. Infinities abound in the literature on black holes. The infinitely weak force of gravity is balanced by postulating an almost infinitely dense object – the black hole. Playing with infinities like this can give you any result you desire. It sidesteps the fact that we do not understand the real nature of gravity, or the relationship between mass and matter, or the electrical response of matter to gravity, or the electrical nature of the universe. That’s a great deal of ignorance to be swallowed up, even by a hypothetical black hole!
(a lightyear is the time it takes light, the fastest known speed, to reach something).
This leads him to speculate on why no extraterrestrials have come our way as far as we know.