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The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
All K-9's must find marijuana and coc aine to certify. Other narcotics are optional to certify on.
There will be two (2) statshes of each narcotic in each given area.
QUANTITIES OF NARCOTIC TO BE USED FOR CERTIFICATION
Cocaine Minimum amount to be used ten (grams) per stash
Maximum amount to be used twenty-eight (28) grams per stash
Marijuana Minimum amount to be used on fourth (1/4) ounce per stash
Maximum amounts to be used two (2) ounces per stash
Optional narcotics may be, but not limited to Heroin, Methamphetamine, or Opium. For these optional narcotics the quantities will stay within the limits for Cocaine.
After an Illinois state trooper stopped respondent for speeding and radioed in, a second trooper, overhearing the transmission, drove to the scene with his narcotics-detection dog and walked the dog around respondent’s car while the first trooper wrote respondent a warning ticket. When the dog alerted at respondent’s trunk, the officers searched the trunk, found marijuana, and arrested respondent. At respondent’s drug trial, the court denied his motion to suppress the seized evidence, holding, inter alia, that the dog’s alerting provided sufficient probable cause to conduct the search. Respondent was convicted, but the Illinois Supreme Court reversed, finding that because there were no specific and articulable facts to suggest drug activity, use of the dog unjustifiably enlarged a routine traffic stop into a drug investigation.
Held: A dog sniff conducted during a concededly lawful traffic stop that reveals no information other than the location of a substance that no individual has any right to possess does not violate the Fourth Amendment. Pp. 2—4.
Three marijuana seizures totaled 106 pounds, and $21,545 in unreported currency was taken from a passengers suit jacket inner pocket.
"That one was a bonus," Meaders said. "These dogs have not been trained to react to currency. There must have been just enough coc aine or marijuana residue on the cash to ring Corky's bell."
Research presented this weekend reinforced previous findings that 90 percent of paper money circulating in U.S. cities contains traces of coc aine.
"When the machine gets contaminated, it transfers the coc aine to the other bank notes," Zuo said. These bills have fewer remnants of coc aine. Some of the dollars in his experiment had .006 micrograms, which is several thousands of times smaller than a single grain of sand.
Cities and coc aine
Bills turned up positive for coc aine in these percentages in certain cities:
100 percent: Detroit, Michigan; Boston, Massachusetts; Orlando, Florida; Miami, Florida; Los Angeles, California
88 percent: Toronto, Canada
77 percent: Salt Lake City, Utah
75 percent: Brasilia, Brazil
20 percent: Tokyo, Japan; Beijing, China
0 percent: Zhuzhou, China
Source: Yuegang Zuo, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
In 1998, Negrusz published similar findings after comparing freshly printed dollar bills that were not released to the public and money collected from a suburb near Chicago, Illinois. In the study, 92.8 percent of the bills from the public had traces of coc aine, but the uncirculated bills tested negative.
Although the contaminated bills do not affect health, Negrusz said, they could cause in a false positive drug test if a person, such as a law enforcement officer or banker, handles contaminated currency repeatedly.
The olfactory bulb in dogs is roughly forty times bigger than the olfactory bulb in humans, relative to total brain size, with 125 to 220 million smell-sensitive receptors. The bloodhound exceeds this standard with nearly 300 million receptors. Dogs can discriminate odors at concentrations nearly 100 million times lower than humans can.
Originally posted by barrelmaker
Are there any cases similar to the one above in which a dog alerted wrongly (ie no drugs)? Are bomb sniffing dogs at airports and train stations a violation of the 4th amendment? I can see your point about using dogs to perhaps circumvent the 4th, but if there hadn't been any drugs to begin with would the dog have alerted at all?
Originally posted by barrelmaker
I can see your point about using dogs to perhaps circumvent the 4th, but if there hadn't been any drugs to begin with would the dog have alerted at all?