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Last December, Haas and Creamer again made headlines with a paper in Nature that presented carbon datings for 13 sites with platform mounds and residential complexes in river valleys near Caral.
Some appeared to be even older than Caral, with dates as early as 3200 B.C. “It is now clear,” the couple wrote, that Caral and other Supe Valley sites “were parts of a much more extensive cultural system that reached across at least three valleys and an area of 1,800 square kilometers.” They called the region the Norte Chico, a colloquial term for the north-central coast of Peru. And they mentioned Shady only in their footnotes.
The Ingá Stone (Pedra do Ingá in Portuguese) is located in near the small city of Ingá in the Paraíba State in the northeast of Brazil. The Ingá Stone is also called Itacoatiara do Ingá. The word Itacoatiara means stone in the Tupi language of the natives that lived in that area. It is composed of some basalt stones covered with symbols and glyphs undeciphered until now.
Most scholars think its origin is related to the natives that lived around until the 18th century, but there are also some people that defended an extraterrestrial origin. Most glyphs represents animals, fruits, humans, constellations (including the Milk Way), and other unrecognizable images.
Not far away from Samaipata, one of the most important archeological monuments of pre-Columbian time in Bolivia can be found: El Fuerte (The Fortress). This archeological place has been declared Cultural Patrimony of Humanity by UNESCO. This mysterious place has been given many hypothetical explanations for its origins. It is supposed that El Fuerte is the work of the Amazonian pre-Incan 'Chané' culture, and later on was used as an advanced city by the Incas and finally by the Spanish colonists that turned El Fuerte into a fortress.
El Fuerte near Samaipata from aside village near el fuerte El Fuerte is the largest carved stone in the world. This archaeological monument reaches a height of 1.949 metres above sea level and is on the ridge of a hill of a sandy rock where ancient cultures sculptured figures but emphasized snakes and pumas, as well as waterways and wells, triangular and rectangular seats, vaulted niches, among other details.
The Ortoiroid people were the first human settlers of the Caribbean. They are believed to have originated in the Orinoco valley in South America, migrating to the Antilles from Trinidad and Tobago to Puerto Rico.
Rouse theorizes that the Ortoiroid developed for a large amount of time in South America before moving to the West Indies. The earliest radiocarbon date for the Ortoiroid is 5230 BC from Trinidad; the latest date is 190 AD from Puerto Rico.
Cahokia kəhoʊkiːə is the site of an ancient Native American city (650-1400 CE) near Collinsville, Illinois in the American Bottom floodplain, across the Mississippi River from St. Louis, Missouri. The 2,200-acre (8.9 km2) site includes at least 109 man-made earthen mounds. Cahokia Mounds is the largest archaeological site related to the Mississippian culture, which developed advanced societies in eastern North America centuries before the arrival of Europeans.
Cahokia was settled around 650 CE during the Late Woodland period. Mound building did not begin until about 1050 CE, at the beginning of the Mississippian cultural period. The inhabitants left no written records beyond symbols on pottery, shell, copper, wood, and stone.. The city's original name is unknown.
'Lost towns' discovered in Amazon
"These are not cities, but this is urbanism, built around towns." "They have quite remarkable planning and self-organisation, more so than many classical examples of what people would call urbanism," he said. Although the remains are almost invisible, they can be identified by members of the Kuikuro tribe, who are thought to be direct descendents of the people who built the towns.
Amazonia 1492: Pristine Forest
Here, we present clear evidence of large, regional social formations [circa (c.) 1250 to 1600 A.D.] and their substantial influence on the landscape, where they have altered much of the local forest cover. Specifically, archaeological research in the Upper Xingu (Mato Grosso, Brazil), including detailed mapping and excavations of extensive earthen features (such as moats, roads, and bridges) in and around ancient settlements, reveals unexpectedly complex regional settlement patterns that created areas of acute forest alteration.