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A Pentagon proposal to give the federal government greater authority to mobilize and command Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps Reserve units during domestic disasters and emergencies is on a collision course with National Guard boosters on Capitol Hill who favor giving governors tactical control over those federal military forces and Guard troops.
The proposal was drafted as a possible amendment to the fiscal 2010 defense authorization bill. It would empower the Defense secretary to call federal Reserve forces to active duty for disaster response.
Under the Pentagon's proposal, federal reservists -- as opposed to National Guard personnel who are ordinarily under state control -- would operate at the direction of the president. That is a major sticking point for governors and Guard supporters, who prefer to have governors direct all military forces in their states during emergencies.
Governors are urging the Senate Armed Services Committee to not expand the Defense secretary's authority in the event of domestic disasters.
The Governors letter comes in response to the Pentagon’s request to Congress to grant the secretary of Defense the authority to order reserve forces to active duty to assist in disaster response as part of conference negotiations over the 2010 defense authorization bill. The House and Senate are in the process of reconciling their bills.
To provide and maintain a Navy; To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces; To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions
57 A militia was provided for in Articles of Confederation (Art. VI, sec.4), each State being required to keep up a body of disciplined men "sufficiently armed and accoutered." The State was forbidden to keep "any body of Forces" in time of peace, unless Congress should deem it necessary as a garrison.
Under our Constitution each State maintains a militia, some of the States having bodies of the highest class in discipline and equipment. By act of Congress the methods of training are uniform, so that when bodies from different States are brought together they work as one.
The Nation may call out the militia of the State for three purposes only; (1) to execute the laws of the Union (the Constitution, the Acts of Congress, and the treaties); (2) to suppress insurrections (the open and active opposition of a number of persons to the execution of law); and (3) to repel invasions, that is, the entrance of an enemy for war. Congress has authorized the President to make those calls.
It is noticeable that the militia is not in the power of the President, and that the authority of Congress over it is limited to three purposes. Here, again, both the President and the Congress are prevented from achieving an armed dictatorship.
To provide for organizing, arming, disciplining the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 58
58 Under this clause Congress has from the beginning provided for the training and maintenance of the militia. The National Defense Act of 1916 revised and extended preceding legislation. There are a National Guard, a Naval and an Unorganized Militia. For the purpose of maintaining appropriate organizations and to assist in instruction and training the President is authorized to assign the National Guard of the State to divisions, brigades, and other tactical units and to detail officers from either the National Guard or the regular Army to command such units.
The watchfulness of the people over State authority and their fear of the encroachment of National power are exhibited again in the provision that the militia must be officered by appointees of the State. Of such a military body the State would have no fear. Besides, officials of the State would be better informed as to who would be competent as officers. It was once a threatening question whether militia in the service of the United States could be commanded by any but militia officers and the President; but any officer under the commander in chief (the President) outranking the militia officer may command.
The Articles of Confederation provided (Art. IX, sec.4) that the Nation should appoint "all officers of the land forces in the service of the United States, excepting regimental officers." The clause in our Constitution was probably intended to restate that idea.
Hamilton said that the powers granted in this clause are naturally incident to the "common defense" of the Nation.
The Posse Comitatus Act makes it a crime to use the Army or Air Force as a domestic police force in most circumstances.
The law, which was enacted in 1878, was intended to end the use of federal troops to supervise elections in the former Confederate states. More generally, though, it reflected an uneasiness with a military role in domestic law enforcement, and a philosophical commitment to subordinating military power to civilian authority.
''Posse comitatus,'' literally ''the force of the county,'' means a body of citizens called together to suppress riots, pursue felons or otherwise help enforce the laws. The American frontier term ''posse'' is a shortened form of the phrase. In early American history and in the Old West, sheriffs and other law enforcement officers would often round up able-bodied men -- civilians and military personnel -- to capture criminals and otherwise enforce the law.
The Original Thirteenth Amendment
US continues to be in a permanent state of national emergency since March 9, 1933, and possibly as far back as the Civil War
--Senate report 93-549 (1973)
On April 15, 1861,
President Lincoln reconvened Congress under the Executive branch by proclamation (number 1): "I do hereby, in virtue of the power in me vested by the Constitution, convene both Houses of Congress."
Ceasar (President) is now in full control even over the Senate (Congress).
The Founders held an intense disdain and distrust of "Nobility" as a result of a long history, during Colonial times, of abuses and excesses against the Rights of Man and the established Common Law and Constitutions by the "Nobility", and therefore placed in the new Constitution two injunctions against acceptance of Titles of Nobility or Honor or emoluments from external sources
Originally posted by Hx3_1963
According to the English Law of time past...
Lawyers/Esquires...are just one step below Knighthood...
As English men and women, the American colonists were heirs to the thirteenth-century English document, the Magna Carta (details below), which established the principles that no one is above the law (not even the King), and that no one can take away certain rights. So in 1763, when the King began to assert his authority over the colonies to make them share the cost of the Seven Years' War England had just fought and won, the English colonists protested by invoking their rights as free men and loyal subjects. It was only after a decade of repeated efforts on the part of the colonists to defend their rights that they resorted to armed conflict and, eventually, to the unthinkable–separation from the motherland.[/urlex]
Originally posted by burntheships
reply to post by Cloudsinthesky
Roll up thy sleeve thou peasant commoner!
Take unto thyself the adjuvant squalene!
The Pentagon and the Department of Homeland Security recently notified law enforcement agencies and associations, such as the National Association of Chiefs of Police, about the Obama Administration's interest in using the military during "emergencies."
Government officials reported that the Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency Administrator W. Craig Fugate met with the Commander of the US Northern Command, General Gene Renuart
Congress is being asked to declare war on the United States of America and based on how the United States of America has treated Congress this past month in town halls, and in the past 2 years with abysmal approval ratings, there is an excellent chance Congress will do just that and authorize these troops.
Squalene is commercially extracted from fish oil, and in particular shark liver oil. Squalene used in pharmaceutical products and vaccines is purified from this source.
Adjuvants are added to many vaccines to increase their immunogenicity and efficacy. Aluminium salts (alum) have been widely used as adjuvants and are generally considered safe.
Aluminium salts however have their limitations in terms of adjuvant effect, and a wide range of novel adjuvants are now being evaluated for use in new or improved vaccines. These adjuvants include immunostimulators, microparticulate carriers and emulsions as well as various combinations of these.