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A Neanderthal man who lived as recently as 50,000 years ago may have been killed by a modern human armed with an advanced projectile weapon, a new study suggests.
If confirmed, the Paleolithic "murder" would be the first compelling case for an anatomically modern human using a weapon against a member of the extinct human species.
The Neanderthal, dubbed Shanidar 3, was discovered in an Iraqi cave in 1959. His remains show that he likely died of a clean wound to his left side that nicked one rib but left the others relatively unharmed.
"People have been speculating about this injury for about 50 years," said study leader Steven Churchill of Duke University in North Carolina.
Experts have suggested that the Neanderthal may have fallen on his own spear, been fatally poked by a fellow hunter—or been killed by a projectile weapon, which only modern humans were known to use.
Originally posted by Republican08
Cane and Abel, one was a neanderthal, the other human. lol.
Originally posted by kidflash2008
reply to post by Scooby Doo
After reading Colin Wilson's "Atlantis and the Kingdom of the Neanderthals", I learned much about the early human species. They were much more intelligent than we gave them credit for. Us "modern" humans lived side by side with them for over one hundred thousand years peacefully.
There is so much we do not know about our cousins of the past, and we always assume they are the brutes. How many wars did the Neanderthals have? So far, no battlegrounds of the Neanderthals have been found (although they do find fossils of dinosaurs fighting).
The Neanderthal Legacy is a fine synopsis on Gooch's life long work concerning the prehistoric existence of the Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon peoples and the consequences of their encounter in Europe 35, 000 years BP (before present). Stan Gooch's past pronouncements that Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon interbred resulting in the dynamic but unstable `hybrid vigour' of modern people have been validated by continued evidence from various sources; but this common sense scenario has been stubbornly rejected by Orthodox science.
Gooch on the other hand has consistently offered multi-faceted evidence from not just anthropology, but also modern physiology and the psychology of a wide range of myths and legends and from history itself, that indicates not only the fusion of two dramatically different strains of genes but also the wholesale subjugation of Neanderthal's matriarchal empire; the Christian devil for example is none other than Neanderthal. This violent repression of Neanderthal by Cro-Magnon has an all too eerie familiarity about it that makes joining the dots a relatively simple task (the manic and almost successful attempt by the Nazis to eradicate Jews, Gypsies and Slavs), but Gooch's insights are extraordinarily plentiful; for example, the enlarged head of present day babies brought about by the cross breeding is the only part of the body that seems to be an unnatural size for the birth canal. His narrative is aimed at providing students with research material and probing questions to be asked of their lecturers to highlight the lack of discussion and silence with regard to many of these issues.
Originally posted by kidflash2008
reply to post by mmiichael
I thought Neanderthal man and modern man could not reproduce together as they were far apart on the genetic scale. I will definitely get Stan Gooch's book on the subject. Thank you for the mention of the man and his book.
I think us modern humans like to put ourselves as the superior life form that ever lived on this planet.
Originally posted by Kandinsky
reply to post by kidflash2008
AFAIK Homo Sapien and Homo Neanderthal didn't reproduce. The recent release of the Neanderthal genome didn't show any evidence of 'cave-love' between species. New evidence might have come to light in the past few months?
If the case remains, I'd be surprised if it was due to a lack of 'trying.' The (thankfully minority) male propensity to stick his tool in anything from chickens to horses and anything else, indicates an obstacle to inter-species reproduction. I've also read somewhere that a Neanderthal baby's head may well have been too large to survive birth and that female Sapiens' hips potentially made full-term pregnancy impossible.
Neanderthals may have given the modern humans who replaced them a priceless gift -- a gene that helped them develop superior brains, U.S. researchers reported on Tuesday.
And the only way they could have provided that gift would have been by interbreeding, the team at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the University of Chicago said.
Their study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, provides indirect evidence that modern Homo sapiens and so-called Neanderthals interbred at some point when they lived side by side in Europe.
"Finding evidence of mixing is not all that surprising. But our study demonstrates the possibility that interbreeding contributed advantageous variants into the human gene pool that subsequently spread," said Bruce Lahn, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute researcher at the University of Chicago who led the study.
Scientists have been debating whether Neanderthals, who died out about 35,000 years ago, ever bred with modern Homo sapiens. Neanderthals are considered more primitive, with robust bones but a smaller intellects than modern humans.
Lahn's team found a brain gene that appears to have entered the human lineage about 1.1 million years ago, and that has a modern form, or allele, that appeared about 37,000 years ago -- right before Neanderthals became extinct.
"The gene microcephalin (MCPH1) regulates brain size during development and has experienced positive selection in the lineage leading to Homo sapiens," the researchers wrote.
Positive selection means the gene conferred some sort of advantage, so that people who had it were more likely to have descendants than people who did not. Lahn's team estimated that 70 percent of all living humans have this type D variant of the gene.
"By no means do these findings constitute definitive proof that a Neanderthal was the source of the original copy of the D allele. However, our evidence shows that it is one of the best candidates," Lahn said.
The researchers reached their conclusions by doing a statistical analysis of the DNA sequence of microcephalin, which is known to play a role in regulating brain size in humans. Mutations in the human gene cause development of a much smaller brain, a condition called microcephaly.
By tracking smaller, more regular mutations, the researchers could look at DNA'S "genetic clock" and date the original genetic variant to 37,000 years ago.
They noted that this D allele is very common in Europe, where Neanderthals lived, and more rare in Africa, where they did not. Lahn said it is not yet clear what advantage the D allele gives the human brain.
"The D alleles may not even change brain size; they may only make the brain a bit more efficient if it indeed affects brain function," Lahn said.
Now his team is looking for evidence of Neanderthal origin for other human genes.