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ingredient CAS No. Percent Hazardous
Silver Iodide 7783-96-2 98-100% Yes
Caution! May cause irritation to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Upon decomposition or heating, iodine vapor is released which is highly toxic. The toxicological properties of this substance have
not been fully investigated.
Much attention focused on the dynamic seeding technique to invigorate cloud growth, and thereby, augment precipitation. It is significant that a number of dynamic seeding experiments with slightly different designs collectively produced the impression that rainfall enhancements may have occurred, at least as estimated from radar, at the scale of the multi-cloud mesoscale (dimensions on the order of a few tens of kilometers) system. However, results are not statistically significant and are not always consistent with one or more steps in the conceptual seeding model that was being tested. Dynamic seeding experiments were conducted in west Texas and Illinois in the United States, in Thailand, and in Cuba. Interest also renewed in stimulating the coalescence process for precipitation enhancement through hygroscopic seeding.
Instrumented cloud seeding airplanes were used to obtain physical measurements in warm and cold cloud regions of treated clouds [ Perez et al., 1992; Zimin et al., 1992].
experiments in Thailand were conducted in 1991 and 1993 through assistance from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (BurRec)
Dynamic seeding experiments were conducted during the summers of 1986, 1987, and 1989 by the Institute of Meteorology of the Cuban Academy of Sciences in collaboration with the Central Aerological Observatory of Russia
This led to experiments in South Africa to replicate, as closely as possible, the influence of paper mill effluent on cloud microphysics. Randomized seeding experiments [ Mather and Terblanche, 1992] were conducted during the 1991-1992 summer season in two regions
Ackerman, B., Hypothesis and cloud physics studies. In Precipitation Augmentation for Crops Experiment: Pre-experimental Face Studies, Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL, Contract Report 404, 6-1--6-10, 1986.
American Meteorological Society, Planned and inadvertent weather modification: A policy statement of the American Meteorological Society. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73, 331-337, 1992.
Anantharaj, V.G., An exploratory study of the summertime observations by a dual wave length microwave radiometer at Dickinson, North Dakota in 1987.
Bader, J., W.A. Stahel, and W. Schmid, Further results of Grossversuch IV: The effect of the first rocket launched in a potential hail cell. J. Appl. Meteor., 31, 700-707, 1992:.
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Boe, B.A., and J.A. Jung, The application of geostationary satellite imagery for decision making in convective cloud seeding in North Dakota. J. Wea. Mod., 22, 73-78, 1990.
Boe, B.A., J.L. Stith, P.L. Smith, J.H. Hirsch, J.H. Helsdon, Jr., A.G. Detwiler, H.D. Orville, B.E. Martner, R.F. Reinking, R.J. Meitin, and R.A. Brown, The North Dakota thunderstorm project. A cooperative study of High Plains thunderstorms. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73, 145-160, 1992.
Braham, R.R., Jr., The cloud physics of weather modification. Part I: Scientific basis. WMO Bull., 35, 215-221, 1986.
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Bruintjes, R.T., T.L. Clark, W.D. Hall, and R. Gall, Use of sophisticated 3-dimensional numerical models in winter orographic weather modification efforts. Proceedings of the AMS Symposium on Planned and Inadvertent Weather Modification, Atlanta, Georgia, 121-125, 1992b.
Bruintjes, R.T., G.K. Mather, D.E. Terblanche, and F.E. Steffens, A new look at the potential of hygroscopic seeding in summertime convective clouds. Proceedings of the 1993 ASCE National Conference on Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Park City, Utah, 496-503, 1993.
Chai, S.K., W.G. Finnegan, and R.L. Pitter, An interpretation of the mechanisms of ice-crystal formation operative in the Lake Almanor cloud-seeding program. J. Appl. Meteor., 32, 1726-1732, 1993.
Changnon, S.A., R.R. Czys, R.W. Scott, and N.E. Westcott, Illinois precipitation research: a focus on cloud and precipitation modification. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72, 587-604, 1991.
Changnon, S.A., and Lambright, W.H., Experimentation involving controversial scientific and technological issues: Weather modification as a case illustration. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71, 334-344, 1990.
The CHILL radar will be the primary radar for the PACE 1989 operations. It is anticipated that the HOT radar, also a 10-cm Doppler radar will be running by 1 June 1989 and will be operated in a surveillance mode, i.e., 360° scans, topping all echoes. When both radars are operating at the same time, they will both have to by pass the azimuth sectors where they point at each other. However, because the CHILL will be able to drop its surveillance task, it is felt that this is a small cost. Additionally, both radars must by-pass an approximately 5° wide sector directed at the airport tower (SW of the radars) at the lowest elevation angles. The CHILL effectively causes the airport tower printer to go 'off-line'. This is unacceptable to the tower control. It is unlikely that a shield will resolve the problem.
The CHILL radar (named so because it was first located in CHicago, ILL) is an 11-cm wavelength, transportable, multiple polarization research radar system and is operated by Colorado State University (CSU's) Atmospheric Science and Electrical Engineering department.
The New York Times Free Article Q&A; Cloud Seeding - New York Times
Newspaper article from: The New York Times Cloud seeding dates from experiments...usually relies on silver iodide as a seeding agent...For example, seeding at the wrong time...remote and that seeding can be suspended...danger of flooding. Cloud seeding has been... Read more
SciTech Book News Free Article Guidelines for cloud seeding to augment precipitation, 2d ed.(Brief Article)(Book Review)
Magazine article from: SciTech Book News 078440819X Guidelines for cloud seeding to augment precipitation, 2d...practice of weather modification by cloud seeding to augment precipitation. Coverage...motivating and limiting operational cloud seeding, and descriptions of the technologies... Read more
Small Press Bookwatch Free Article Cloud Seeding.(Brief Article)(Book Review)
Newspaper article from: Small Press Bookwatch Cloud Seeding Stacy Gillett Coyle High Plains Press PO Box 123, 539 Cassa Road...title in the High Plains Press "Poetry of the American West" series, Cloud Seeding showcases the contemporary western poetry of Stacy Coyle. Currently... Read more
The New York Times Free Article Can Rain Be Bought? Experts Seed Clouds and Seek Answers - New York Times
Newspaper article from: The New York Times ...for three months of seeding was a good investment...on eight acres. The cloud-seeding method generally used...release plumes containing silver iodide crystals into storm...hail by injecting the cloud with different amounts of silver iodide at a different place...why, is ... Read more
The New York Times Free Article The Modern Rain Dance - New York Times
Newspaper article from: The New York Times ...dry ice dropped into a cold cloud would provoke the crystallization...novelist Kurt, showed that silver iodide a pale yellow, odorless powder...Vonnegut: they will spray silver-iodide nuclei into the clouds that...to measure the success of seeding. After all, it's nearly... Read more
The New York Times Free Article Ideas & Trends; The Science of Rain-Making Is Still Patchy - New York Times
Newspaper article from: The New York Times ...early scientific research into cloud seeding, set up shop at Floyd Bennett...police airplane to sprinkle silver iodide crystals into clouds over the...a two-year $1.1 million cloud-seeding effort in Colorado. While acknowledging... Read more
The New York Times Free Article Wallace E. Howell, 84, Dies; Famed Rainmaker in Drought - New York Times
Newspaper article from: The New York Times ...Howell traveled the world, seeding clouds with dry ice and silver iodide, trying to make rain for...the physics of clouds and cloud seeding, particularly the use...generators to provide the silver iodide crystals around which water... Read more
Environment Free Article Making the weather.(Spectrum)
Magazine article from: Environment ...enhance rainfall by "seeding" clouds with ice-forming...there is evidence that seeding a cloud with a chemical agent--such as silver iodide, which could form ice...cloud modeling, and cloud seeding. Other recommendations... Read more
Environmental Health Perspectives Free Article Rain theft in China.(The Beat)
Magazine article from: Environmental Health Perspectives ...courts to set up laws for "cloud farming," although scientists...technology, which involves seeding cumulus clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to prompt precipitation. The...modification" bureaus charged with cloud seeding. Read more
The New York Times Free Article Bernard Vonnegut, 82, Physicist Who Coaxed Rain From the Sky - New York Times
Newspaper article from: The New York Times ...wring more raindrops from cloud cover for the croplands below...Schenectady when the technique of cloud seeding took flight in the 1940...crystals when dropped into a cloud of water droplets below the...Vonnegut soon established that silver iodide got better results in nucleating...
Title : Project Foggy Cloud IV, Phase 1. Evaluation of Warm Fog Dissipation Techniques.
Descriptive Note : Technical publication,
Corporate Author : NAVAL WEAPONS CENTER CHINA LAKE CALIF
Personal Author(s) : Hindman,Edward E. , II ; Clark,Richard S. ; St.-Amand,Pierre
Report Date : AUG 1973
Pagination or Media Count : 57
Abstract : Project Foggy Cloud IV, Phase 1, is part of a continuing series of experiments concerning the modification and dispersal of warm fog and stratus clouds. Tests were conducted at the Arcata-Eureka airport, Humboldt County, Calif., from 26 July to 7 October 1971, using a fixed-wing aircraft as a delivery vehicle. The seeding agents were water and a solution of ammonium nitrate, urea, and water developed during Project Foggy Cloud 1. The effects of the wing-tip vortices from the aircraft were investigated. One of the three definitive tests with wing-tip vortices improved the visibility above field minimums. One of the four definitive tests with water improved visibility above minimums. Three of the six definitive tests with the ammonium nitrate/urea/water solution improved visibility above minimums. The technique using the hygroscopic solution was the most effective. (Author)
Descriptors : (*FOG, REMOVAL), (*AIRPORTS, VISIBILITY), STRATUS CLOUDS, ARTIFICIAL PRECIPITATION, AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS, NITRATES, UREA, WATER, VORTICES, TEST METHODS, STATISTICAL DATA
University of Denver.
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