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Approximately 6,000 veterans were involved in conducting chemical tests in two programs to defend against biological and chemical weapons threats:
* Project SHAD (Shipboard Hazard and Defense), which was conducted to determine the vulnerability of U.S. warships to attacks with chemical and biological agents
* Project 112, which involved similar tests on land, rather than aboard ships
DoD committed to providing the VA with the relevant information it needs to settle benefits claims as quickly and efficiently as possible and to evaluate and treat veterans who were involved in those tests.
The purpose of Deseret Test Center (DTC) Test 69-32 was to examine the effect of solar
radiation on the viability of aerosolized Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli after being
aerially disseminated in a temperate marine environment during time periods about sunrise and
Twenty-seven field trials were conducted (14 Serratia marcescens and 13 Escherichia coli). R
eleases were made from two Aero 14B spray tanks wing-mounted on an A-4C aircraft. Bacillus
subtilis var. niger (BG) with fluorescent tracer suspension was released from one tank while
either Serratia marcescens or Escherichia coli was simultaneously released from the other.
Calcofluor was added to the BG as the physical fluorescent tracer. All trials were conducted using
ten percent calcofluor added to the BG.
The USS Granville S. Hall (YAG-40), along with five Army light tugs, was assigned to provide
surface support to DTC Test 69-32. The five tugs, each converted to serve as an oceangoing
sampling platform and laboratory, were employed as target vessels. Agent and tracer
dissemination by A-4C aircraft commenced 1.6 kilometers downwind of the primary
laboratory ship (YAG-40) and continued downwind for approximately 3.2 kilometers
beyond the last sampling support tug.
DTC Test 69-32 was conducted at sea southwest of the Hawaiian Islands during the period of
April 30 to June 28, 1969
The purpose of Deseret Test Center (DTC) Test 68-50 was to determine the potential
casualty area and associated casualty levels for the F-4/AB45Y-4/PG2 weapon system. The
weapon system disseminated an aerosol over a 40-50 kilometer downwind grid, encompassing
a segment of the Eniwetok Atoll and an array of five Army light tugs.
The agent employed in this test was staphylococcal enterotoxin, Type B, a toxin produced
by certain strains of the common bacterium known as Staphylococcus aureus. A two percent
concentration of uranine dye (sodium fluorescein) was incorporated into the staphylococcal
enterotoxin, during the drying cycle at the production plant. The dye served as a tracer for
the agent. Bacillus subtilis var. niger (BG) was also used as a tracer of the agent aerosols.
The USS Granville S. Hall (YAG-40) was assigned to DTC Test 68-50, along with five
Army light tugs. Aircraft assigned to the 4533rd Tactical Test Squadron, 33rd Tactical Fighter Wing,
disseminated agent and tracers during the test.
The tests of Project 112, and the related seaborne Project SHAD, were kept secret until October 2002. Many tests occurred on U.S. soil and released live biological agents, chemical agents or their simulants. In total, according to the reporting of CBS News, more than 5,000 soldiers and sailors were involved in the secret tests, many of them unknowingly. From 1963-1965 there were 18 tests involving biological simulants, usually Bacillus globigii. B. globigii was used to simulate more lethal agents, such as anthrax; once thought harmless to humans, research in the intervening years has revealed it can cause infection in those with weakened immune systems. Between 1965-1967 14 separate tests were performed using VX, sarin, nerve agent simulants and tear gases.
In an exclusive taped interview with freelance radio reporter S. T. Brendt, the Air Traffic Control (ATC) manager said he was told on as many as four occasions in March, 2001 to re-route commercial air traffic around military aircraft taking part in an undisclosed aerial operation over the northeastern seaboard.
On her way to the interview location, Brendt observed six big jets laying brilliant white lines above a broken cloud layer. Instead of dissipating like normal condensation trails, these lingering plumes grew wider and wider, intersecting and merging.
Originally posted by mikerussellus
reply to post by Udontknowme
Well. I'm not sure what to say (or reply) to that.
I'm trying like hell to come up with a proper defense or reply to this.
Nope, can't come up with a damn thing.
....With time, the pioneers learned what the American Indian had known for countless generations: the buffalo were the link to continued life.
In the years following the Civil War, financial and government interests sought to sever that relationship. The belief was that wherever the buffalo roamed, so too did the American Indian, whose very presence threatened the success of westward expansion.
By the 1870s, the U.S. Army was losing one soldier for every three Indians it killed. Railroad barons, whose interests the Army was in large part working to protect, needed to indemnify their transcontinental investments against native intrusion. Texas cattlemen, meanwhile, had already begun driving their longhorns north, looking for new forage, links to the Union Pacific, and access to eastern markets. All parties saw the buffalo, which fed and clothed the Indian, as the key obstacle to dominance.
“When we get rid of the Indians and buffalo,” enthused General Nelson Miles, commander of a garrison near Fort Keogh, Montana, in 1876, “the cattle . . . will fill this country.” Source
On the phone, during long marches, occupying federal surplus property, in court fighting for treaty rights -- wherever Indian activists gathered during the "Red Power" years of the 1970s, conversation inevitably turned to the number of women who had had their tubes tied or their ovaries removed by the Indian Health Service.
This was, I heard one woman joke bitterly at the time, a "fringe benefit of living in a domestic, dependent nation." Source
Originally posted by mikerussellus
reply to post by Udontknowme
Using a tobacco mosaic virus labeled with a flourescent dye would provide the same results with no impact on the environment or the people living underneath. And results concerning dispersal, contamination would be just as effective.