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On shell and off shell
In physics, particularly in quantum field theory, configurations of a physical system that satisfy classical equations of motion are called on shell, and those that do not are called off shell.
Functional equations which hold off-shell are denoted by the "=" sign. Functional equations which only hold on-shell are denoted by "~".
For instance, in classical mechanics in the action formulation, extremal solutions to the variational principle are on shell and the Euler-Lagrange equations are on shell equations (i.e., they do not hold off shell). Noether's theorem is also another on shell theorem.
Source : Wikipedia
String field theory
String field theory (SFT) is a formalism in string theory in which the dynamics of relativistic strings is reformulated in the language of quantum field theory.
The principle advantages of the formalism are that it allows the computation of off-shell amplitudes and, when a classical action is available, gives non-perturbative information that cannot be seen directly from the standard genus expansion of string scattering. In particular, following the work of Ashoke Sen, it has been useful in the study of tachyon condensation on unstable D-branes. It has also had applications to topological string theory, non-commutative geometry, and strings in low dimensions.
String field theories come in a number of varieties depending on which type of string is second quantized: Open string field theories describe the scattering of open strings, closed string field theories describe closed strings, while open-closed string field theories include both open and closed strings.
In addition, depending on the method used to fix the worldsheet diffeomorphisms and conformal transformations in the original free string theory, the resulting string field theories can be very different. Using light cone gauge, yields light-cone string field theories whereas using BRST quantization, one finds covariant string field theories. There are also hybrid string field theories, known as covariantized light-cone string field theories which use elements of both light-cone and BRST gauge-fixed string field theories.
A final form of string field theory, known as background independent open string field theory, takes a very different form; instead of second quantizing the worldsheet string theory, it second quantizes the space of two-dimensional quantum field theories.
Source : Wikipedia
Originally posted by scordar
I've been seeing these same kind of strange looking patterns in my yard lately.
Nobody knows where they come from, they usually appear while i am at work.
My neighbours say that they heard some kind of strange giggling during the time they were created.
Might be something to do with 2012 and pole shift i guess.
Great analysis star and flag!
Originally posted by purehughness
S&F, nay, a MILLION stars and flags!
My friend, I salute you, this is maybe the best thread I've seen in a long time, seriously, my sides are still hurting.
I'm glad the seventh incarnation of Earth will be a happy one!
But who do you think made them?
I'd have to say it was a race of 3-4 foot beings, wearing brightly coloured outfits, who emit a happy-go-lucky, carefree feeling and make us forget our worldy troubles.
Have a great day dude.
Originally posted by jaden_x
i think TPTB is in on it and something really bad is going to happen in the upcoming months killing millions.
i also see patterns of extreme weather related disasters and possible WWIII.
Originally posted by Ferris.Bueller.II
reply to post by visible_villain
Have you noticed any glowing orbs, flashes of light, or strange magnetic and/or radioactive signs lately? Have you thought about setting up a YouTube directed camera to capture the aliens? We all know everything on YouTube is thoroughly documented and authentic.
Originally posted by octaviameister
Ahh, this may be the silliest thing I have ever seen on ATS. Come on, surely you can find something a little more realistic than chalk?
Sorry, this one is laughable....