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In 1991 two elderly landscape painters named Doug Bower and Dave Chorley confessed that they had been making crop circles in English grain fields since the 1970's after reading about the Tully, Australia Saucer Nest of 1966. The pair demonstrated how they did it for a film crew and told how they had devised the idea over a pint or two at their local pub. It would appear that the Tully, Australia Saucer Nest of 1966 is the earliest reported crop circle, although it is not what may be recognised today as a typical crop circle.
Crop formations in England overwhelmingly appear over shallowly-buried parts of a giant chalk aquifer. England has the world’s deepest chalk aquifer. (The white cliffs of Dover are a view of one side of it.) They also have some of the world’s greatest seasonal fluctuations of water levels—up to 100 feet. Was there anything about this which might attract plasma? As it turned out, there was. Water percolating through porous rock—any kind of porous rock—creates electric charge. This occurs by a process called “adsorption,” where electrons are stripped off water droplets as they move through rock pores, leaving a net negative electric charge behind on the rock and a net positive charge on the water which drains through.
With calcium carbonate (the mineral which makes up chalk) there is a chemical process when the water dissolves some of the mineral, which further reinforces this same charge separation. Wherever charge separation Occurs in a body which can conduct electricity, electric current flows and generates its own magnetic fields. We measured these ground currents and their changing magnetic fields in 1993 at Silbury Hill, long the center of the most intense crop formation activity in the world.
Relationship with aquifer
Crop formations in southern England overwhelmingly occur where this electrically-charged rock is closest to the surface. The largest formations and most frequent formations happen late in the summer when the aquifer is most run down, and the most water has therefore run through the most rock. The beginning of the modem phenomenon of large, spectacular formations begins in the late seventies and early eighties, a time when over-pumping for public water supplies began to lower the water table noticeably. Droughts have coincided with banner years for crop formations.
In England, our team has measured the kind of magnetic fields one would expect to accompany such electric ground currents in one field that has nearly annual formations. Four days later a major formation occurred there. Follow-up fluxgate magnetometer measurements four days after this sixty-foot dumbbell formation appeared showed that the magnetic readings and the currents which produced them had vanished. This is not unlike the discharge with that more powerful plasma—lightning. In that case ground current attracts the airborne plasma, and when the plasma (the bolt) hits the surface it neutralizes the ground current.
Limestone is the chemical twin of chalk. It too is calcium carbonate, but much less porous than chalk. It too has the ability to generate ground currents from interaction with water, but not nearly so much as chalk. Thus it is fascinating to note that limestone aquifers are the major exception to crop formations occurring over chalk substrata. Formations in England do happen a minority of the time on the large limestone aquifers there.
In the U.S. we have no substantial chalk deposits, but huge stretches of limestone aquifers: in Florida, on the Eastern Coastal Plain, throughout much of the Midwest, and virtually all of the Great Plains, extending into Canada. Finally a thin stretch runs down the West Coast. These locations are where crop formations occur. As in England, the most active sites seem to frequently be where an edge of the aquifer occurs or where a river valley has cut through the aquifer to produce an edge. Proximity to water is also typical (no surprise considering the current generated between water and the rock it ran through).
Originally posted by cropmuncher
reply to post by jprophet420
Oh know doubt, if you have read my posts in previous threads you will see i agree that some, probably most even are man made from the ground but not all.
I am not saying some are alien but there is a real phenomenon that can be backed up by real scientific facts and study.
Now you can suggest that there is some underlying ad campaign going on but i think it is very unlikely due to the vary low amounts of money to be made from net ads, thats not saying some arent man made though.
As for all the links, well how can we back up what were discussing on here without them?
You know we have to provide them or we get attacked for not providing evidence.
Anyhow couldnt the same be said for people who link back to ats?
This doesn't prove that ALL crop circles are man made of course, but it's the only suggestion that makes any sense to me. That is providing that you regard grown men stomping through corn fields at night as sensible.