SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Title: The location of Planet X
Authors: Harrington, R. S.
Journal: Astronomical Journal (ISSN 0004-6256), vol. 96, Oct. 1988, p. 1476-1478.
Bibliographic Code: 1988AJ.....96.1476H
Arguments for the presence of a distant large undiscovered Solar system planet
Murray, J. B.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 309, Issue 1, pp. 31-34.
Aphelion distances of long-period comets show a slight excess around 30000 to 50000au from the Sun. Positions of cometary aphelia within these distance limits are aligned along a great circle inclined to both the ecliptic and the Galactic plane. This paper examines one of the possible explanations for this non-random clustering: that it is due to orbital perturbations by an undiscovered object orbiting within the above-mentioned distances. A model consistent with the observations gives a retrograde orbit (inclination 120 deg) for the object with a longitude of the ascending node at 77 deg+/-13 deg, a period of 5.8x10^6 yr and a radius of 32000au. The same model gives a present position for the undiscovered object of RA 20^h 35^m, Dec.+5 deg, with an error ellipse semimajor axis of 14 deg and a semiminor axis of 7 deg. The magnitude is likely to be fainter than 23. Such a distant object would almost certainly not remain bound for the age of the Solar system, and recent capture into the present orbit, although also of low probability, remains the least unlikely origin for this hypothetical planet.
Keywords: COMETS: GENERAL: PLANETS AND SATELLITES: GENERAL
Perhaps the gravitational pull from the other dim star we cannot see is why the sun takes a bobbing motion up and down as it travels around the Milky Way??
Originally posted by ElectricUniverse
BTW, you keep reciting this as if it was enough proof to dismiss theories and findings given by astronomers and other scientists. One thing you obviously don't understand is the fact that "we think" the Sun contains 98.99% of all matter, We do not know it for certain as we haven't been able to find every object which exists in our Solar System.
There have been scientists saying that there could very well be another object the size of Jupiter, or even bigger that we haven't been able to detect yet.
Our current understanding of our Solar System is not "obsolete and written in stone", if it was then there would have never been the need to downsize Pluto from being a planet to being a dwarf planet.
Originally posted by weedwhacker
OK...well, as to the possibility of some unseen, as yet, large body that is perturbing our Solar System??? Sorry, centuries of observations would seem to discount that notion.
Oh, I know...'scholarly research' showing the outer planets possibly moving outward at the astonishing rate of 10 meters every 100 years? Well, I'm not worried too much about it.
Secular increase of the astronomical unit and perihelion precessions as tests of the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati multi-dimensional braneworld scenario
Lorenzo Iorio JCAP09(2005)006 doi: 10.1088/1475-7516/2005/09/006
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Viale Unità di Italia 68, 70125, Bari, Italy
Abstract. An unexpected secular increase of the astronomical unit, the length scale of the Solar System, has recently been reported by three different research groups (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Pitjeva, Standish). The latest JPL measurements amount to 7 ± 2 m cy−1. At present, there are no explanations able to accommodate such an observed phenomenon, either in the realm of classical physics or in the usual four-dimensional framework of the Einsteinian general relativity. The Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati braneworld scenario, which is a multi-dimensional model of gravity aimed at providing an explanation of the observed cosmic acceleration without dark energy, predicts, among other things, a perihelion secular shift, due to Lue and Starkman, of 5 × 10−4 arcsec cy−1 for all the planets of the Solar System. It yields a variation of about 6 m cy−1 for the Earth–Sun distance which is compatible with the observed rate of change for the astronomical unit. The recently measured corrections to the secular motions of the perihelia of the inner planets of the Solar System are in agreement with the predicted value of the Lue–Starkman effect for Mercury, Mars and, at a slightly worse level, the Earth.
6 The increase of the Astronomical Unit
6.1 The observation
From the analysis of radiometric measurements of distances between the Earth and the major planets including observations from Martian orbiters and landers from 1961 to 2003 a secular increase of the Astronomical Unit of approximately 10 m/cy has been reported (36) (see also the article (37) and the discussion therein).
6.2 Search for explanation
Time–dependent gravitational constant and velocity of light This increase cannot be explained by a time–dependent gravitational constant G because the ˙ G/G needed is larger than the restrictions obtained from LLR.
It has also been speculated that a time–dependent change in the velocity of light can be responsible for this effect. Indeed, if the speed of light becomes smaller, than ranging will simulate a drift of distances. However, a inspection of Kepler’s third law
a3 = GM⊙
shows that, if one replaces the distance a by a ranging time a = ct, then effectively the quotient G/c3 appears. Only this combination of the gravitational constant and the speed of light governs the ratio between the orbit time, in our case the orbit time of the Earth. Consequently, a time–dependent speed of light is equivalent to a time–dependent gravitational constant. Since the latter has been ruled out to be possibly responsible for an increase of the Astronomical Unit, also a time–dependent speed of light has to be ruled out.
Cosmic expansion The influence of cosmic expansion by many orders of magnitude too small, see Sec.9.2. Neither the modification of the gravitational field of the Sun nor the drag of the planetary orbits due to the expansion is big enough to explain this drift.
Clock drift An increase of ranged distances might also be due to a drift of the time scale of the form t → t + αt2 for α > 0. This is of the same form as the time drift needed to account for the Pioneer anomaly. From Kepler’s third law one may ask which α is suitable in order to simulate the increase of the Astronomical Unit. One obtains α ≈ 3 · 10−20 s−1 what is astonishing close to the clock drift needed for a clock drift simulation of the pioneer anomaly, see Eq.(16) and below.
7 The quadrupole and octupule anomaly Recently an anomalous behavior of the low–l contributions to the cosmic microwave background has been reported. It has been shown that (i) there exists an alignment between the quadrupole and octupole with > 99.87% C.L. , and (ii) that the quadrupole and octupole are aligned to Solar system ecliptic to > 99% C.L. . No correlation with the galactic plane has been found.
The reason for this is totally unclear. One may speculate that an unknown gravitational field within the Solar system slightly redirects the incoming cosmic microwave radiation (in the similar way as a motion with a certain velocity with respect to the rest frame of the cosmological background redirects the cosmic background radiation and leads to modifications of the dipole and quadrupole parts). Such a redirection should be more pronounced for low–l components of the radiation. It should be possible to calculate the gravitational field needed for such a redirection and then to compare that with the observational data of the Solar system and the other observed anomalies.
8.2 Other anomalies?
There is one further observation which status is rather unclear bit which perhaps may fit into the other observations. This is the observation of the return time of comets: Comets usually come back a few days before they are expected when applying ordinary equations of motion. The delay usually is assigned to the outgassing of these objects. In fact, the delay is used for an estimate of the strength of this outgassing. On the other hand, it has been calculated in (44) that the assumption that starting with 20 AU there is an additional acceleration of the order of the Pioneer anomaly also leads to the effect that comets come back a few days earlier. It is not clear whether this is a serious indications but a further study of the trajectories of comets certainly is worthwhile.
Originally posted by spinalremain
Been learning about everything you guys have been posting and I'm much clearer about a lot of things, but still; I'd like to know if all stars and star systems move throughout the galaxy in an oscillating "bobbing" motion? Are some stars and star systems soley above the galactic plane and vice versa below? Or do all systems cross from the top through to the bottom in the way that our solar system does? Throw away all the mathematics and theoretical gravity stuff for a moment. I merely want to know if all cellestial objects in our galaxy revolve around the galaxy in the same manner. The bobbing motion is what really confuses me and leads me to believe that there are forces at work which we do not understand.
Originally posted by spinalremain
reply to post by badmedia
yeah I totally understand the procession cycle of the axis and how it relates to where we visibly are in respect to the constellations. I kinda thought I had it all figured out until that scientist lady started confusing me with the bobbing explanation. I really didnt know what the hell that was all about. From the research I did, I discovered that we were exactly alligned with the gallactic plane in 1998 and have been since rising above the plane. If we arent going to be truly alligned with the gallactic plane in 2012 then why are ppl making such a fuss. Twice a year on each equinox we are alligned with the center and the sun from our perspective. Therefore 2012 will be the same allignment we have twice every year correct?