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Originally posted by smallpeeps
Originally posted by dashen
Umm, no. Amun, Ra, Amun RE were not a sun god or sun gods. The egyptian sun god was Horus, right?
The "Great Ennead"
The most important of the Egyptian pesedjets, the so-called Great Ennead (also called the Heliopolis Ennead), consisted of Ra, his children Shu and Tefnut, and their descendants Geb, Isis, Nephthys, Nut, Osiris, and Set. It was defined in the Egyptian city of Annu (place of pillars), the Egyptian name for what the Greeks called Heliopolis (sun city), in the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom and other deities who had existed for a thousand years were ignored in order to stress the importance of this local sun deity. The location of the ancient city was five miles east of the Nile River, north of the Delta. The city was later called in Arabic ˁAyn Šams (the eye of the sun). Late in the Ptolemy Dynasty, the Greek rulers failed to favor this local sun deity and their center of learning shifted to the newly-built city of Alexandria, by the first century BC, Strabo found the once great centers at Annu deserted, and the town itself almost uninhabited, although priests remained.
The origins of this grouping now remain uncertain. In some versions Ra mated with Iusaaset, the great one who comes forth, and their children were Shu and Tefnut. Consequently, Iusaaset was seen as the mother and grandmother of the deities. Sometimes she is described as a "shadow" in this pesedjet.
Up until the mid-twentieth century theories of Egyptologists postulated that the Heliopolis priesthood established this pesedjet in order to place their local sun-god, Ra, above all other deities such as Osiris, however, many later Egyptologists now question this. It appears almost certain, however, that the Great Ennead first appeared during the decline of Ra's cult in the sixth dynasty and, that after introduction of the new pesedjet, the cult of Ra soon saw a great resurgence until the worship of Horus gained prominence. Afterward worship focused on the syncretistic solar deity Ra-harakhty (Ra, who is Horus of the Two Horizons). During the Amarna Period, Akhenaten introduced worship of aother solar deity, Aten, the deified solar disc. He built a temple in Annu, named Wetjes Aten (wṯs ỉtn, Elevating the Sun-disc). Blocks from this temple later were used to build walls to the medieval city of Cairo and are included in some of the city gates. The cult of the Mnevis bull, an embodiment of Ra, had its centre here and established a formal burial ground for the sacrificed bulls north of the city.
First mentions of Isis date back to the fifth dynasty which is when the first literary inscriptions are found, but her cult became prominent late in Egyptian history, when it began to absorb the cults of many other goddesses. It eventually spread outside Egypt. She absorbs many aspects of earlier goddesses, becoming identified as the mother of Horus, who represented and protected the pharaohs.
After Horus, Amun was a regional solar deity whose importance increased greatly when the pharaohs of Thebes regained control of the country from invaders and began the eighteenth dynasty. Ra became the next son of the solar deity and his cult rose to later dominance, eclipsing the earlier deities.
Let's concentrate on the fact that Amun means "The hidden one". I think that's key.
What exactly does amen mean?
Amen is a word that came to English from Latin, which got it from Greek, which got it from Aramaic, which got it from Hebrew (technically, Aramaic may have had it anyway, before it became the standard language of the Jewish people a few centuries before the time of Christ).
It is difficult to translate this word directly, which is often a reason that words are borrowed from other languages (i.e., if there’s no direct way to translate this foreign word, just borrow it). The specific Hebrew word amen (’amen ) appears to be derived from a related verb--’aman , which means "he confirmed, supported, or upheld." This verb is also associated with the Hebrew word for truth (’emet ), which carries the idea of certainty or dependability (i.e., that which is true is that which is certain or dependable).
’Amen itself is an interjection used to agree with, affirm, approve, or emphasize something else that has been said. Thus when Jesus begins certain sayings by declaring "Amen, amen, I say to you . . . " various Bible translations often render the "amen, amen" different ways. Because of the word’s association with the Hebrew terms for truth, the double amen is sometimes rendered "truly, truly" or "verily, verily." Because of its association with the Hebrew terms for confirmation or dependability, one might also translate it "certainly, certainly" or "most assuredly."
When one says "amen" in response to a prayer, it serves as an affirmation of agreement with the content of the prayer (cf. 1 Cor 14:16)—in which case it is sometimes translated "So be it" (cf. CCC 2856)—or as an expression of faith that God will hear and act on the prayer.
Bottom line: Amen is an interjection associated with the Hebrew words for truth and dependability, it conveys the idea of agreement or emphasis, and its meaning can be translated different ways depending on the context.