The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement. The scale is only theoretical and in terms of an actual civilization highly speculative; however, it puts energy consumption of an entire civilization in a cosmic perspective. It was first proposed in 1964 by the Soviet Russian astronomer Nikolai Kardashev. The scale has three designated categories called Type I, II, and III. These are based on the amount of usable energy a civilization has at its disposal, and the degree of space colonization. In general terms, a Type I civilization has achieved mastery of the resources of its home planet, Type II of its solar system, and Type III of its galaxy.
It was 30 years ago when Voyager 1 started on its mission. Not quite seeking out new life-forms and splitting infinitives, but there’s still time. Voyager’s speed is now roughly 34,000 mph or about 307 million miles per year—so great, even the Stig would be impressed.Voyager 1 and 2 were designed originally to fly past every planet in the solar system. Even after the program was scaled back, they only missed Pluto, still classed as a planet in the 1970s. In the 1990s, Voyager 1 zoomed past Pioneer 10, at the time the furthest man-made object. Today, Voyager 1 continues to collect data on a digital tape recorder which it transmits to Earth every six months.
An FTL propulsion system - based on Alcubierre’s warp drive - that utilizes dark energy to propel a spacecraft faster than light has been proposed, and could revolutionize space travel according to an article on the website of Cosmos Magazine . The concept is supported by the calculations of several physicists at Baylor University in Waco, Texas. Comparable to the warp drive concept of Star Trek, their theory states that a spacecraft could travel at warp velocity in a bubble of space-time, by manipulating dark energy — the mysterious invisible force allegedly responsible for the observed acceleration in the expansion of the universe. Essentially, the spacecraft would remain in the same place, while space-time ahead of the craft would shrink, expanding again behind it.
In 1996, NASA established the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program, which sponsored some speculative work on warp drives. This program was discontinued in 2002[curiously IMO).
While thought experiments on the wilder shores of theoretical physics continue to be formed, no scheme that may allow travel at warp velocity has yet been devised that has also been accepted by mainstream science. Some physicists have proposed a model of FTL travel, formulated in the context of Lorentzian manifolds, which are used in general relativity to construct space-time models. However, contrary to a common misconception, these models are in no sense solutions to the Einstein field equation, and they give no knowledge as to how a warp bubble might actually be established.
These models do however show that while it is indeed impossible to exceed the speed of light, in principle it might be possible to circumvent the problem by suitably "warping" spacetime itself. The most renowned theory, known as the Alcubierre drive, uses terminology in accord with Star Trek jargon: "warp factors" measure the warping of space-time, not the magnitude of actual velocity. In his book The Physics of Star Trek, Lawrence Krauss states that while it is possible to actually travel at a velocity greater than that of light via warp drive, huge amounts of negative energy are required to make it work. Gardiner developed a timetable for the development of the warp drive from analyses of history. He concluded the realization of the warp drive might be achieved around the year 2180.
The following formula (Einstein field equation), based on general relativity, theoretically permits the travel of an object at a greater velocity than that of light, provided that space-time is curved.Hypothetically, if space-time is warped properly, the velocity of the traveling object does not technically exceed the speed of light, even though they appear to be moving faster than light to observers in normal space-time.
In 2007, physicist Richard Obousy proposed that a warp drive could be created by directly manipulating the extra dimensions of string theory. His idea suggests the expansion of space-time is a consequence of the vacuum ground-state of higher dimensional graviton fluctuations. The vacuum energy equations can be expressed as:In this model, it is the radius of the extra dimensions that directly controls the expansion of space. Obousy suggests that it is superstrings that wrap around the extra dimensions and thusly keeping them compact, but that a sufficiently advanced civilization might influence a string and locally adjust the size of the extra dimension creating a controlled expansion and contraction of the space surrounding an interstellar craft. In July of 2008 it was reported that two Baylor University physicists have outlined how a faster-than-light engine could be created by manipulating the 11th dimension, a special theoretical construct of m-theory.
The Alcubierre metric, also known as the Alcubierre drive or Warp Drive, is a speculative mathematical model of a spacetime exhibiting features reminiscent of the fictional "warp drive" from Star Trek, which can travel "Faster-than-light" (although not in a local sense - see below).
In 1994, the Mexican physicist Miguel Alcubierre proposed a method of stretching space in a wave which would in theory cause the fabric of space ahead of a spacecraft to contract and the space behind it to expand. The ship would ride this wave inside a region known as a warp bubble of flat space. Since the ship is not moving within this bubble, but carried along as the region itself moves, conventional relativistic effects such as time dilation do not apply in the way they would in the case of a ship moving at high velocity through flat spacetime. Also, this method of travel does not actually involve moving faster than light in a local sense, since a light beam within the bubble would still always move faster than the ship; it is only "faster than light" in the sense that, thanks to the contraction of the space in front of it, the ship could reach its destination faster than a light beam restricted to travelling outside the warp bubble. Thus, the Alcubierre drive does not contradict the conventional claim that relativity forbids a slower-than-light object to accelerate to faster-than-light speeds. However, there are no known methods to create such a warp bubble in a region that does not already contain one, or to leave the bubble once inside it, so the Alcubierre drive remains a theoretical concept at this time.
Can we ever achieve speed faster than light? Yes, say contemporary physicists disagreeing with Einstein’s theory of relativity. Advanced alien civilizations are tunneling through with speed much faster than light all the time. The problem is skeptics question such happenings with old non-contemporary Physics.
In recent years, some physicists have conducted experiments in which faster-than-light (FTL) speeds were measured. On the other hand, Einstein's theory of special relativity gives light speed as the absolute speed limit for matter and information.
The Berkeley group gives a general overview of their research at physics.berkley.edu .
In one of the experiments, where a single photon tunneled through a barrier and its tunneling speed (not a signal speed!) was 1.7 times light speed, is described in Steinberg, A.M., Kwiat, P.G. & R.Y. Chiao 1993: "Measurement of the Single-Photon Tunneling Time" in Physical Review Letter 71, S. 708—711.
Scientists in recent days are finding that exceeding speed of light through wave propagation in a tunneling experiment is nothing new. The scientific think tanks are now confident that advanced alien civilizations are constantly speeding through the wormhole tunnels with speeds exceeding 100 times that of light.
That is how the intergalactic travel across 100 light years can take place in less than a day and may be in a few hours. Of course the wormholes themselves bend time and space. The tunnel speed of 100 times faster than light is fast speed when you consider that time and space is attached to each other as evident in our physical universe. But that speed is easy to achieve once you can detach time from space and learn to speed in space slightly above the speed of light. Fast forwarding detached time spatial creates the final magic – it provides the ultimate speed multiplier and one achieve the speed faster that 100 times that of light.
There is another trick to the whole thing. Extraterrestrial aliens of advanced order can utilize the wave propagation for linear transportation of an entity from the physical universe or the parallel universe through the wormhole. The biggest challenge for them is not the speed but keeping track of space and time spatial characteristics.
It was Austrian Ludwig Flamm who had realised that Schwarzschild's solution (called the Schwarzschild Metric) to Einstein's equations actually describes a wormhole connecting two regions of flat space-time; two universes, or two parts of the same universe. Lorentzian wormholes are essentially short cuts through space and time but they instantaneously close unless some form of negative energy can hold them open. It is possible to produce small amounts of negative energy in the laboratory by a principle known as the Casimir  effect. However this energy would not be enough to keep open a wormhole.
[edit on 4/29/2009 by jkrog08]
wikipedia.orgThe Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle-The Copenhagen Experiment is the driving force behind Dr.Heisenbergs observation that you can never determine both the location and momentum of a particle because not only does the act of observing it(or any particle) affect one of those measurements but even stranger the particles somehow ‘know’ when you are measuring another one and thus are affected therefore affecting the measurements.
Quantum entanglement is a possible property of a quantum mechanical state of a system of two or more objects in which the quantum states of the constituting objects are linked together so that one object can no longer be adequately described without full mention of its counterpart — even though the individual objects may be spatially separated.
wikipedia.org The only thing we can do is use odds to ‘guess’ the best possible location of a particle, this is known as the probability distribution but we are not going to get into that here. The previous quantum observations among others have been the leading reason why the Theory of Relativity and Quantum Theory are complete opposites and not unified(which is the ultimate goal for many physicist right now) or apparently compatible. A couple theoretical means of utilizing these principles of the quantum world are either to somehow change a craft and occupants into a quantum state and then simply ‘jump’ to any location in space-time it chooses.. Another way would be to figure out how these particle communicate instantaneously,utilize it, and ‘jump’ to the location of another particle anywhere. There are some other theories that could make either of those plausible but they get complicated and would make this thread terribly long and boring to most(yes even members of ATS likely).Here is a possible phenomena to achieve this drive:
In quantum physics, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that certain physical quantities, like position and momentum, cannot both have precise values at the same time. The narrower the probability distribution for one, the wider it is for the other.
The answer appears to be that these properties have their origin as the fluctuations of the quantum vacuum.
The properties of the Universe come from `nothing', where nothing is the quantum vacuum, which is a very different kind of nothing. If we examine a piece of `empty' space we see it is not truly empty, it is filled with spacetime, for example. Spacetime has curvature and structure, and obeys the laws of quantum physics. Thus, it is filled with potential particles, pairs of virtual matter and anti-matter units, and potential properties at the quantum level.
This report summarizes the accomplishments during a three year research project to investigate the use of surfaces, particularly in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), to exploit quantum vacuum forces. During this project, we developed AFM instrumentation to repeatably measure Casimir forces in the nanoNewton range at 10-6 torr, designed an experiment to measure attractive and repulsive quantum vacuum forces, developed a QED based theory of Casimir forces that includes non-ideal material properties for rectangular cavities and for multilayer slabs, developed theoretical models for a variety of microdevices utilizing vacuum forces, applied vacuum physics to a gedanken spacecraft, and investigated a new material with a negative index of refraction.
Interstellar travel; Spacecraft propulsion; Physics; Gravitation; Antigravity
Is any of this possible? Absolutely it is...
We have only been in the “Space Age” for around 50 years...
Evolution as a way of not letting a species make to large of ‘jumps’ before they as a whole are ‘mentally’ ready.
Originally posted by jkrog08
I liked the flashing Swartzchild Radius(wormhole with a 'football' shaped thing in the middle).it added some flare,lol.
Originally posted by jkrog08
Well even current physics cant adequately describe what happens in a blackhole,let alone a wormhole!My suggestion is that you visualize it in your mind.Your brain can perceive things on a subconscious level that it cant on a conscious.Also remember that at this point in physics nuclear fusion does not exist,neither do the laws of physics...but however you wish to think of it is what matters.