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Aryan (IPA: /'ərɪən/) is an English language loanword. As the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language states at the beginning of its definition, "[it] is one of the ironies of history that Aryan, a word nowadays referring to the blond-haired, blue-eyed physical ideal of Nazi Germany, originally referred to a people who looked vastly different. Its history starts with the ancient Indo-Iranians, peoples who inhabited parts of what are now Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India."
Scientists have discovered the British are descended from a tribe of Spanish fishermen. DNA analysis has found the Celts — Britain's indigenous population — have an almost identical genetic "fingerprint" to a tribe of Iberians from the coastal regions of Spain who crossed the Bay of Biscay almost 6,000 years ago.
Sure, Mr. Targett had heard of Cheddar Man, and had even visited the cave in this quaint Somerset village where his skeleton was found in 1903. But after a seemingly quixotic experiment in which scientists compared Cheddar Man's DNA to that of 20 local residents, Mr. Targett recently received a wholly unexpected piece of news: He is, it seems, related to Cheddar Man on his mother's side.
In the late 1990s, Bryan Sykes of Oxford University first sequenced the mitochondrial DNA of Cheddar Man, with DNA extracted from one of Cheddar Man's molars. Cheddar Man was determined to have belonged to a branch of mitochondrial haplogroup U, a haplogroup which is especially common in Britain, Ireland and the Basque Country of northern Spain and south western France.
The earliest known use of a binary numbering system dates back to the 2nd century AD in Southern India. Pingalas Chhandahshastra used binary numbers to classify musical meters. Pingala formed a matrix in order to give a unique value to each meter, but wrote from left to right, instead of right to left, as binary is written today. He also started with one rather than zero
According to the distinguished linguist Frits Staal, we can now assert, with the power of hindsight that Indian linguists in the fifth century B.C. knew and understood more than Western linguists in the nineteenth century A.D.
While the exact time of Panini’s existence seems to be uncertain, several hundred years BC, by all accounts he conceived about 4000 rules regulating Sanskrit grammar documented in a text Astadhyayi. Computer scientists recognized Panini, may be belatedly, as the forefather of programming language grammars. The grammar that is used to describe modern programming language with metarules is sometimes called the Panini-Backus form. John Backus is a U.S. computer scientist notable as the inventor of the first high-level programming language, called FORTRAN, expressed in grammar rules that bear a strong resemblance to Panini’s rules. The ancient roots of programming language grammars are attributed to Panini in his honor. According to Frits Staal and tested with Fowler’s automaton, his metarules had such a level of sophistication that the computing power is considered equivalent to a Turing machine, which is considered a precise computing model that lies at the heart of our modern computers.
Equally fascinating is that the binary system was also rooted in ancient India. Pingala, again of uncertain age but estimated to be several hundred years BC, enunciated the secrets of the universal language of 0s and 1s in his Chhandahshastra, a Sanskrit treatise on the prosody considered one of the Vedanga.
With respect to Pingala’s ancient work and the relationship to modern computers and the binary number system, the eminent physicist and mathematician, Stephen Wolfram states that Fibonacci numbers (each succeeding number is a sum of the preceding two numbers) appear to have first arisen in perhaps 200 BC in the work by Pingala on enumerating possible patterns of poetry formed from syllables of two lengths. This also led to the discovery by Pingala of binary numbers. Pingala described the binary number system in relationship to the listing of Vedic meters with short and long syllables.
Rather, this system was invented in India, where it evidently was of quite ancient origin. The Yajurveda Samhitaa, one of the Vedic texts predating Euclid and the Greek mathematicians by at least a millennium, lists names for each of the units of ten up to 10 to the twelfth power (paraardha). (Subbarayappa 1970:49) Later Buddhist and Jain authors extended this list as high as the fifty-third power, far exceeding their Greek contemporaries, who lacking a system of enumeration were unable to develop abstract mathematical concepts.
Why, one might ask, did Europe's take over thousand years to attain the level of abstract mathematics achieved by Indians such as Aaryabhata? The answer appears to be that Europeans were trapped in the relatively simplistic and concrete geometrical mathematics developed by the Greeks. It was not until they had, via the Arabs, received, assimilated and accepted the place-value system of enumeration developed in India that they were able to free their minds from the concrete and develop more abstract systems of thought. This development thus triggered the scientific and information technology revolutions which swept Europe and, later, the world.
If European culture descended from Aryan beliefs, which Vedic currently represents, then why is Perfection, the central pursuit of Vedic culture, completely absent from ancient European culture?
Most of the time when somebody attacks the source it is an adhominem fallacy. It iis basically an excuse to disregard somebodies evidence.
Hence, according to the above, not only was India progressive, its scientific development even in 1000BCE(iron age) was ahead of the scientific development of Europe right up to the 19th century AD. (By the way even 21st century AD we cannot reproduce the level of Indian mathematics)
Let's look at the facts
Language is from the same family(Devas/Deus; Prana/Anah; Atman/Anam etc) poetry is the same structure, society is the same structure, rituals are the same, education is the same, ethics are the same, cosmology and belief are the same.
Yeah, other, more ancient cultures understood the value of the triangle, but Pythagoras is the guy who came up with the theory that put it all together. These people who claim that Western culture refuses to give any credit to others for their contributions are the ones with the bias.
The sutras contain discussion and non-axiomatic demonstrations of cases of the Pythagorean theorem and Pythagorean triples. It is also implied and cases presented in the earlier work of Apastamba and Baudhayana, although there is no consensus on whether or not Apastamba's rule is derived from Mesopotamia. In Baudhayana, the rules are given as follows:
1.9. The diagonal of a square produces double the area [of the square].
1.12. The areas [of the squares] produced separately by the lengths of the breadth of a rectangle together equal the area [of the square] produced by the diagonal.
1.13. This is observed in rectangles having sides 3 and 4, 12 and 5, 15 and 8, 7 and 24, 12 and 35, 15 and 36.
Where is your evidence of India's development of calculus? Where is India's Newton?
REALLY!!!! Most of India still doesn't have running water, but the Romans had running water almost 2,000 years ago. Europeans had guns and sailing ships and were navigating the world for several hundred years by the 19th century.
Tamil Nadu was ruled by the early Cholas between 1st and 4th centuries CE. Karikalan was the first and the most famous king, who built the Kallanai (kall - stone, anai - bund), a dam across the Cauvery River, which is considered to be an engineering wonder of that time. The Cholas ruled the present Thanjavur and Tiruchirapalli districts and were excellent in military expertise.
By the end of the 18th Century, rockets had evolved from primitive Chinese and Arab devices into reliable weapon systems, capable of hitting targets over reasonable distances.
Rockets in the Anglo-Mysore Wars
At the end of the 18th Century, the British saw the potential of rocket power first hand during the Second, Third and Fourth Anglo-Mysore Wars. The British were greatly impressed by the performance of the rocket used against them by the Indians in these conflicts. Following the end of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, the British took several captured rockets back to Britain for study, where William Congreve was ordered to reverse engineer them.
The rocket that Congreve developed was based on a similar design developed by Tipu Sultan, the ruler of the Indian kingdom of Mysore. Tipu Sultan used his rockets as a form of light artillery that was more easily able to keep up with Mysorean infantry, yet still hit targets up to 1,000 yards away. Tipu Sultan described the tactics developed for rocket attacks in a military manual entitled Fathul Mujahidin. Tipu Sultan’s manual called for 200 rocket men to be attached to each infantry unit.
These men were trained to calculate the rocket’s trajectory to the target based on the angle of the rocket and the distance to the target.
The sizes of the rockets varied but were usually between 1.5 and three inches in diameter. Each rocket was attached to a four foot long bamboo pole. The rocket body consisted of an iron tube that acted as a combustion chamber and a conical nose cone that acted as a warhead.
The Indians were the first to develop irrigation, dock yards and ships, underground plumbing, roads, planned cities
It is widely agreed that the Shudra caste of Indian society was largely constituted from the pre-Aryan inhabitants of India who were subjugated by the Aryans. To begin with, it is quite possible that as long as Aryan society had not divided itself into various castes there would have been no logical reason for segregating the non-Aryan conquered races who as per the tribal practice could, as we have discussed earlier, either be eaten or be absorbed into the tribal set up of the conquering Aryans. That some of the conquered non-Aryans were disposed off this way is indicated by the existence of the practice of Purusha-Medha Yagna among the Aryans whose cannibalistic traits are also illustrated by the legend of Chilaya (Srilaya).
But what is more important here is that some of the conquered non-Aryans could have been absorbed into Aryan society. Racial intermixing could also have taken place due to regular pairing between the Aryans and pre-Aryans. That such racial intermixing did take place is indicated by the strict injunctions against intermarriage between Aryans and non-Aryans and later between various castes. The prevention of a particular practice, presupposes its occurance. The rationale for such injuctions against the racial intermixing between the Aryans and the conquered people must lie in the fact that when a social structure developed, with the Aryans occupying the upper echelons, it became necessary to preserve racial purity. Their status of belonging to a particular social category as Brahmins or Kshatriyas had to be preserved. Racial intermixing posed a danger of diluting their favoured position and thus it had to be prohibited. From this reality, arose the doctrines of Untouchability, Unapproachability and Endogamy among various castes. It was these doctrines that gave the feature of heredity to the caste system which was further cemented by ideas of birth one' s in a caste depending on one's deeds in a past life and re-birth in a higher caste if one strictly adhered to caste rules in one's present life.