The Pre-Columbian Exchange: Time to Rewrite the History Books

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posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 07:29 PM
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Here is an interesting paper that brings forth valid evidence of a pre-columbian exchange between the Americas and various other parts of the world (i.e. Polynesia, India, China, Egypt, Japan). These compelling finds have yet to be contested and are undeniable. Below are highlights from the paper.

ATS media link for paper

DNA and Blood Samples Taken


As early as the 1950s, it was noticed that the Diego blood factor, an East and Southeast Asian type, also occurred among American groups but was absent in the North. Other blood factors are showing comparable patterns. These include the Rhesus and Kell factors, plus transferrins, GM immunoglobins, and human lymphocyte antigens or HLAs. In addition, there are the glucose-6-phosphodehydrogenase deficiency and mitochondrial DNA. I cannot cover the details here, but suffice it to say that a variety of “foreign” genes, especially from Afro-Asiatic and southern Asian parts of the world, occur again in the Western Hemisphere, not randomly, but with definite concentrations, especially in Mesoamerica and in the Central to Southern Andean region. This seems impossible to assign to mere happenstance, and Mediterranean/ Middle Eastern and greater Southeast Asian/ Oceanian inputs appear to be the only believable explanation.


Cocaine and Tobacco found with Egyptian Mummies


Finally, there is the phenomenon of forensic pathologists’ identification, during the 1990s, of residues of nicotine and coc aine in ancient Egyptian mummies. Tobacco is, of course, an American and Southwest Pacific genus, and coca is native to the eastern slope of the Andes, none of these places being anywhere near Egypt. Conventional scholars, disbelieving the possibility of transoceanic transfers, have done mental contortions to try to dismiss this evidence. But, as I think I demonstrate in yet another article in the next Pre-Columbiana, none of the objections holds up very well (Jett 2001).


The Exchange of Cultivated Plants


The beauty of this kind of evidence is that cultivated plants are genetic entities and can be domesticated only where the appropriate wild ancestors occur; that is usually strictly limited geographically. Further, very few such plants can cross oceans or establish and maintain themselves without human help. Thus, along with the indications of human genetics described above, cultivated plants comprise the “smoking guns” of transoceanic evidence. Only a few prominent examples can be described here. One is the seedless South American sweet potato, discovered archaeologically in Polynesia shortly before the ABC Conference (Hather and Kirch 1991), and for which there is good nonarchaeological indication of presence in pre-Columbian Asia. Another is the amazing archaeological presence of the South American peanut in Neolithic China at about 2000 B.C., first reported in the 1960s and verified by Carl Johannessen (1998:22 25) with Wang in the 1990s. Readers of the NEARA Journal and Across before Columbus are aware of Johannessen’s work (1998) on the thousands of carvings of ears of maize on temples in India, especially of Karnataka in the south. As far as I am concerned, this ends any controversy as to that plant’s pre-Columbian presence in Asia. Since that time, Carl has also found temple sculptures that appear to show other American crop plants, including sunflowers and annonas (Johannessen with Wang 1998).


I decided to put all of this up because I frequently hear the same argument that there has been no substantial evidence to prove that a pre-columbian transaction actually occurred. Well hopefully this will close off that argument and open up new discussions and discourse as to what these findings actually mean for our current belief on the existing peoples of the Americas and how the Americas came to be discovered. For example, maybe Columbus knew exactly where he was going.

S&F if you concur.

Edit: Forgot to site paper, sorry



[edit on 22-4-2009 by leira7]




posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 07:47 PM
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Just more evidence that people were travelling the globe futher back in history than we are taught.

I think this earth had peoples travelling around the globe thousands of years before thought. I can imagine ballon ships travelling around. I heard once that a navigational compass was found in china desert where no water was ever known to be. this compass was thousands of years old.



posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 07:54 PM
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reply to post by Le Colonel
 


I agree with that notion of globe traveler's. The one thing that doesn't seem to be clicking in my head is that some of this evidence in the aforementioned paper was found in the 80's and 90's, how come nobody said anything about it? Why is this topic so hush hush? I have spent hours trying to find any supporting evidence on a pre-columbian exchange and I must say that the literature is unreasonably slim.



posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 07:56 PM
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I absolutely am inclined to accept that our knowledge of truly ancient history is either severely warped, primitively short-sighted, or deliberately suppressed.

I suspect that the many 'hints' of civilizations extending back beyond 10,000 BCE are probably more reasonable than mainstream academicians are willing to accept.



posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 08:01 PM
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Here is an article I had previously posted in another thread. It is a separate research that shows DNA proof of a pre-columbian exchange of the Polynesian chicken, (Gallus gallus) to the Americas.


Two issues long debated among Pacific and American prehistorians are (i) whether there was a pre-Columbian introduction of chicken (Gallus gallus) to the Americas and (ii) whether Polynesian contact with South America might be identified archaeologically, through the recovery of remains of unquestionable Polynesian origin. We present a radiocarbon date and an ancient DNA sequence from a single chicken bone recovered from the archaeological site of El Arenal-1, on the Arauco Peninsula, Chile. These results not only provide firm evidence for the pre-Columbian introduction of chickens to the Americas, but strongly suggest that it was a Polynesian introduction.


[url=http://www.pnas.org/content/104/25/10335.abstract]Link to this _/url]



posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 08:05 PM
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Awesome. Star and Flag.

P.S. For those that didn't know, I just thought I would add that the Occult/Hermetic Philosophies/Theosophy all acknowledge these types of things as undeniable facts... it really explains a lot of things. This Earth is very old, and the Zodiac is VERY important. There has been cultures that span the entire globe before now. Many of them, if they are right.

Ex. Aquarius the Water Bringer(we are entering into now, remember the song?) is very coincidental to reports of Sea Level Rise.

I think we will continue to see history revised, as the one I was taught is proven wrong every day it seems.




posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 08:10 PM
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I think I heard once that the Portugese had a long history of coming here (Western Hemisphere) ...Columbus simply acquired some maps during his early career working with the Portugese. Columbus' wife was Portuguese.

I suspect that Afonso, the 1st King of Portugal, and his successors were looking for their wife, since she was in China and they couldn't easily take the eastern land route, an incredible amount of energy was spent searching for a way to avoid traveling through the Middle East; apparently there were some real $&%^$ living in that region of the world 900 years ago as well as today.

Apparently knowledge of the Western world, maps and sea routes, was a state secret and not shared with the any of the other Maritime nations, which were scarce as it was. Because what most people consider history is the history of the Spanish, English and to a lesser extent the French...it makes since that one would say..."Columbus discovered America"...it is true, but only from their point of view. It seems to be a euphemistic phrase that conceals that Columbus stole the Portugese maps, or perhaps his wife stole them for him, which allowed him to cross the Atlantic and find a new world.

I pretty much thought that the idea that Columbus knew exactly what he was searching for was widely accepted.

[edit on 22-4-2009 by huckfinn]



posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 08:15 PM
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I think it is all about the funding. Science/Archaeology is generally funded by universities who are in turn funded by other sources. Depending on who those sources are, is the deciding factor for what information we are allowed to have presented to us. This may also be further edited by the politics of the PTB and their agenda.

For example if christianity(or other religion) has anything to do with the funding then the last thing they want is information that may contradict civilization being 6000 years old and its routes being Africa/Middle Eastern.

If for example we suddenly suggest that there were existing civilizations in the Americas at the time of Egyptian rule that could seriously challenge those religious beliefs, just as the discovery of any civilized culture predating 4000 BC.

I have always believed that S. America was awake far longer than the history books tell us. I think it will take some independant work and someone on a mission bring this about. How could we have been land locked for so long without someone coming up with the means of distant travel. What, they can build Pyramids but cannot cross the Ocean?



posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 08:15 PM
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reply to post by huckfinn
 


That would explain that mysterious ancient map of the western world ... I'll try to find the link, but you probably know what I'm talking about....


EDIT TO ADD:

The Vinland Map




Also: www.sciencedaily.com...

[edit on 22-4-2009 by Maxmars]



posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 08:25 PM
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I don't think their lying, about Civilizations...I think that we aren't given in school a robust definition of exactly what civilization is.

Civilization did begin 6,000 years ago...in Sumer. But civilization, despite having a positive connotation, from what I can see is actually a crime against humanity.

Human society is far older of course, but civilization, being an entirely different concept is only about 6,000 years old.

The popular history which is widely available is probably the product of Civilization, but the "forbidden" or surpressed information and documents which people like us search out are probably the product of some human society, which hadn't been civilized when they produced the documents which may or may not exist. They are hidden or destroyed until they are no threat to the civilizers.



posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 08:28 PM
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reply to post by Maxmars
 


That's a fine map. I haven't seen it, thanks. Something like that would have been closely held and not shared when it was produced. If I knew of a secret place that noone on Earth knew of I'd certainly keep it a secret for as long as possible.



posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 08:29 PM
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reply to post by Maxmars
 


Let's not forget the Piri Reis map




posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 08:31 PM
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Originally posted by leira7
reply to post by Maxmars
 


Let's not forget the Piri Reis map




That's exactly the one I was originally thinking of...!

I knew I hadn't gotten the right one! Thank you!



posted on Apr, 22 2009 @ 09:11 PM
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You should also look at the "x" halo group amongst native Americans.



posted on Apr, 23 2009 @ 01:02 AM
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reply to post by beebs
 


yes the zodiac is even more important than I imagined, especially after looking over this document on the piri reis map. Supposedly, the mapmaker wrote down that antartica was known to have "large snakes" there, but in actuality, it was referring to a constellation that you can only see in the south pole, there is no way that the map maker, Piri Reis could have known this living in the northern hemisphere.





To the left is an almost accurate map of Africa made in 1502 called the "Hamy-King Chart of 1502".


[edit on 23-4-2009 by leira7]



posted on Apr, 23 2009 @ 01:11 AM
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reply to post by Blackmarketeer
 


I don't think I have heard of this, do you care to elaborate for us?



posted on Apr, 23 2009 @ 05:38 AM
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Some great maps have been posted! I was not aware of the Vinland map prior to reading this thread, thanks.

I was under the impression that the piri reis map was actually the outline of South America as when compared they are very similar, however, I guess that is a whole new debate in its self.

Great post though in the OP. I am of the opinion that ancients were traversing the globe much more than we currently think and the Egyptian evidence really helps bring this to life.

Maybe some experts in the field can offer an alternative as to why tobacco was present?



posted on Apr, 23 2009 @ 06:35 AM
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reply to post by leira7
 


Real good post! But to take it even farther I think it ludricis that anyone can believe that mankind just somehow became explorative around the time of Columbus and that was only Eurpeans. But conventional academia stands to have to re-evaluate itself if the long standing view of history is overturned and no one likes to have to do that. Especially when you're an older professor.



posted on Apr, 23 2009 @ 07:29 AM
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reply to post by huckfinn
 


You are right. When they say "civilization" they mean "state" - which is the apparatus of oppression, discrimination, demutation, destruction of all those who cannot be tamed and enslaved. It is a lot more than just crime against humanity, it is the ultimate crime against the spirit and intelligence.



posted on Apr, 23 2009 @ 09:00 AM
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reply to post by leira7
 


Iman Wilkins, a researcher of The Iliad and Odessy, believes the mythological stories in the Iliad are references to the constellations used as a cloaked guide for the tin route. I think it is accepted that the stars were used as a reference point in ancient times so it would make sense that there would be a reference to snakes as a way of letting seafarers know they were in the right place.





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