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3rd paragraph in: The discovery of the cemetery this week really convinced me that there is someone important buried inside this temple," he said. "No one would be buried outside a temple without a reason. We saw in the pharaonic days, they were always buried beside pyramids."
The discoveries follow excavations that started last week on three sites along the tunnels by teams from Egypt and the Dominican Republic. It is hoped that one of the deep shafts, identified by a radar scan, will lead to a burial chamber where the tomb will be found. Dr Hawass believes that the tomb could be "bigger than that of King Tutankhamen's", discovered in 1922.
It was more than two millennia ago when Mark Antony and Cleopatra challenged Caesar Augustus for control of the Roman Empire. Their armies were defeated and in 30 BC, rather than surrender, the two lovers committed suicide – Mark Antony by his sword, and Cleopatra with a poisonous asp.
The Roman historian Plutarch said Caesar allowed the two lovers to be buried together, but thelocation of their tomb was kept secret. "If this tomb is found, it will be one of the most important discoveries of the 21st century because of the love between Cleopatra and Mark Antony, and because of the sad story of his death," said Dr Hawass.
Alexander Helios was born and educated in Alexandria. In late 34 BC, as a result of the Donations of Alexandria, he was pronounced as titular ruler of Armenia, Media and Parthia by his parents, despite the fact that most of this territory stood outside of their control at that time; these areas were, in fact, already ruled by Artaxias II of Armenia (Who had been elected as King that same year after Anthony captured his father, Artavasdes II), Artavasdes I of Media and Phraates IV of Parthia. In 33 BC, he was engaged to Iotapa, a Princess of Media and daughter of King Artavasdes I of Media. However, Mark Antony and Cleopatra were defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. The next year, they committed suicide as Octavian and his army invaded Egypt. Iotapa left Egypt to return to her father and later married King Mithridates III of Commagene.
When Octavian became master of Alexandria, he spared Alexander, but took him, his sister and his brother Ptolemy Philadelphus from Egypt to Rome. Octavian celebrated his military triumph in Rome by parading the three orphans in heavy golden chains in the streets. The three siblings were given to Octavia Minor to be raised in her house in Rome under her guardianship. They were generously received by Octavia, who educated them with her own children; Octavia Minor was Octavian's second elder sister and was Mark Antony's former wife.
The ultimate fate of Alexander Helios is unknown. Plutarch states that the only child that Octavian killed out of Antony’s children was Marcus Antonius Antyllus. The ancient sources do not mention any military service, political career, involvement in scandals, marriage plans or descendants; if he had survived to adulthood, it is thought at least one of these would probably have been noted.