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New Activity/Unrest: | Ambrym, Vanuatu (SW Pacific) | Gorely, Southern Kamchatka | Redoubt, Southwestern Alaska | Reventador, Ecuador
Ongoing Activity: | Asama, Honshu | Barren Island, Andaman Is | Batu Tara, Komba Island (Indonesia) | Chaitén, Southern Chile | Colima, México | Fuego, Guatemala | Karymsky, Eastern Kamchatka | Kilauea, Hawaii (USA) | Koryaksky, Eastern Kamchatka | Krakatau, Indonesia | Rabaul, New Britain | Sakura-jima, Kyushu | Shiveluch, Central Kamchatka (Russia) | Suwanose-jima, Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | Tungurahua, Ecuador
AMBRYM Vanuatu (SW Pacific) 16.25°S, 168.12°E; summit elev. 1334 m
Based on information from the Port Vila airport tower, the Wellington VAAC reported that on 25 March an ash plume from Ambrym rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 55 km S. The next day, a pilot reported that "smoke" rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.
GORELY Southern Kamchatka 52.558°N, 158.03°E; summit elev. 1829 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity from Gorely increased during 10-27 March. The Level of Concern Color Code was raised to Yellow.
REDOUBT Southwestern Alaska 60.485°N, 152.742°W; summit elev. 3108 m
On 25 March, AVO reported that a small explosion from Redoubt produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N to NW. Later that day AVO lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange because seismicity had decreased during the previous 36 hours. On 26 March, multiple explosive eruptions produced plumes to altitudes of 6.1-19.8 km (20,000-65,000 ft) a.s.l. or greater. AVO raised the Alert Level to Warning and the Aviation Color Code to Red, the highest levels. The largest eruption, at 0924, also produced a lahar in the Drift River valley that was detected by seismic instruments.
REVENTADOR Ecuador 0.077°S, 77.656°W; summit elev. 3562 m
The IG reported that seismicity from Reventador increased during 25-26 March. On 26 March, the seismic network detected an earthquake swarm consisting of long-period and hybrid events, interspersed with bands of harmonic tremor. Observers reported steam emissions with low ash content.
ASAMA Honshu 36.403°N, 138.526°E; summit elev. 2568 m
JMA reported weak incandescence from Asama on 23 March. Strong steam emissions were seen on 30 March by an observer in Maebashi, 50 km
BARREN ISLAND Andaman Is 12.278°N, 93.858°E; summit elev. 354 m
Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-26 March ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 110 km S.
BATU TARA Komba Island (Indonesia) 7.792°S, 123.579°E; summit elev. 748 m
Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-27 March ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 30-110 km NW.
CHAITEN Southern Chile 42.833°S, 72.646°W; summit elev. 1122 m
SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 17-23 March Chaitén's lava-dome complex continued to grow from an area that includes the central spines and part of Domo Nuevo 1. This was also the main area where collapses from unstable slopes caused block-and-ash flows. Continuously emitted steam plumes with varying amounts of tephra and gas-and-ash plumes generated by block-and-ash flows drifted N and ESE. The block-and-ash flow volume was smaller compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at Red.
COLIMA México 19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m
During 25-29 and 31 March, white and gray plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.6 km (12,800-15,100 ft) a.s.l. and occasionally drifted SW, SE, E, and NE.
FUEGO Guatemala 14.473°N, 90.880°W; summit elev. 3763 m
On 27 and 30 March, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.1-4.8 km (13,500-15,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SW. Some explosions were accompanied by rumbling noises, shock waves detected 10 km away, and avalanches of blocks down the W and SW flanks. Fumarolic plumes drifted NE and SW. On 30 March, incandescent material was ejected 75 m into the air. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 31 March an ash plume drifted E.
KARYMSKY Eastern Kamchatka 54.05°N, 159.45°E; summit elev. 1536 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was elevated during 19-22 March and at background levels during 23-24 March. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes likely rose to an altitude of 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. On 26 March, ash deposits extending 30 km S of the volcano were seen on satellite imagery. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.
KILAUEA Hawaii (USA) 19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m
During 24-31 March, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Daily thermal anomalies seen on satellite imagery suggested surface flows on the coastal plain.
KORYAKSKY Eastern Kamchatka 53.320°N, 158.688°E; summit elev. 3456 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity at Koryaksky was at background levels during 20-27 March. Gas plumes containing a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, W and NW during the reporting period. On 25 and 26 March, gas-and-ash plumes were also seen on satellite imagery and drifted 225 km SE. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.
KRAKATAU Indonesia 6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 813 m
CVGHM reported that seismicity from Krakatau increased during 19-25 March. Fog prevented observations on 24 March. During periods of clear weather on 25 March, white-to-gray plumes rose 400 m above Anak Krakatau. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
RABAUL New Britain 4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m
RVO reported that during 21-26 March white and occasional gray ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 500 m above the crater and drifted in variable directions. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night. Light ashfall was reported S of Duke of York Islands, about 20 km E.
SAKURA-JIMA Kyushu 31.585°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion from Sakura-jima on 26 March produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. JMA reported occasional weak eruptions during 27-30 March.
SHIVELUCH Central Kamchatka (Russia) 56.653°N, 161.360°E; summit elev. 3283 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was above background levels during 20-27 March. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes likely rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. According to observers, fumaroles were active during 23-26 March and explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. on 24 March. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome and an ash plume that drifted 40 km S on 25 March. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.
SUWANOSE-JIMA Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 29.635°N, 129.716°E; summit elev. 799 m
Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 28 March. JMA reported three explosions on 30 March. Details of possible resultant ash plumes on either day were not reported.
TUNGURAHUA Ecuador 1.467°S, 78.442°W; summit elev. 5023 m
During 25-27 and 30-31 March, IG reported that steam-and-ash plumes from Tungurahua rose to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, NE, E, and SW. On 25 March, ashfall was reported in areas to the SW and lahars traveled down a drainage to the W. On 26 March, lahars traveled down multiple drainages to the W, SW, and S; a lahar in the Mapayacu drainage to the SW carried blocks up to 2 m in diameter. Inclement weather impaired visual observations during 28-29 March.