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Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLPs, called LTPs by some authors) are predominantly optical-wavelength effects, typically reported by observers monitoring the Moon visually through a telescope (with a few exceptions discussed in the companion paper). Their physical nature is unknown and even their reality is a point of dispute.
Transient lunar phenomena are defined for the purposes of this investigation as localized (smaller than a few hundred km across), transient (up to a few hours duration, and probably longer than typical impact events - less than 1s to a few seconds), and presumably confined to processes near the lunar surface...In the case of slow seepage, gases may take a
long time to work their way through the regolith. If the gases are volcanic, there may be
interactions along the way, and if water vapor is involved, it and perhaps others of these
gases may remain trapped in the regolith.