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If the map is indeed based on some ancient map, the presence of people on Antarctica concurs with what seems to have been a popular medieval belief, that Terra Australis had in ancient times been inhabited by a world domineering nation. This prompted Bishop Joseph Hall to write a book in which he mocked this belief
The earliest imaginary utopia, or rather dystopia, set in Terra Australis incognita, is Bishop Hall's Mundus alter et idem. The protagonist traveller Mercurius Britannicus' society is far from ideal. Hall's Terra Australis incognita is intended to satirize perfect moral commonwealths. By satirizing the status quo in England, Hall presents a vision whereby the English Renaissance will ultimately produce a degenerate society that is simply up-sidedown: another world and yet the same. But while Hall does not yearn for a past golden age, nor an age of innocence, he does nevertheless believe that present Renaissance England is the equivalent of Sodom and Gomorrah. Hall is at once seeking moderation in all things and is attempting to demolish man's pride in himself and his accomplishments.