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Originally posted by MrAnonUK
We all started out as white beings, (in my atheist belief system) early humans (hominids,) that originated and lived in equatorial Africa had a coat of hair that covered their entire body that protect them from the Sun’s harmful UV.
After hundreds of thousands of years our early primate ancestors started to evolve (evolutionary processes) and hair production diminished leaving their light skin exposed to the Sun’s rays, light skin that provided minimal protection. This therefore means a fair skinned person living near the equator is susceptible to several health risks, such as skin cancer (melanoma).
On the other hand, a person with darker skin meant greater protection and therefore had a greater survival advantage (through increased Melanin.) Thus, a process called Natural selection, filters out certain parental genes (those for lighter skin) in successive generations, producing offspring with slightly different characteristics and less genetic variability.
My beliefs (Atheism and evolutionary) are the reason I post this without any fear of ridicule and/or being labelled a racist person, as through my beliefs I do not feel it a need or necessity to possess a racist superiority complex of any sort.
The common consensus on this issue would raise an interesting discussion in my eyes, hopefully also leaving myself and others with an insight into how others believe regional evolution may decrease or increase a given peoples intellect.
I would like to close my initial input with a reminder to some... this is an observation by one scientist only (that I know of.) Any given differences I am sure are easily proven to be extremely small and not worthy of in sighting any hate or belief of superiority.
Please don’t make me regret raising this very sensitive issue, we’re all potentially above petty hate and maligned comments, please evaluate comments carefully before submitting them.
(visit the link for the full news article)
Sternberg (1986) believes that conventional intelligence tests tell us little about performance in everyday life and suggest a number of reasons why so-called intelligent people fail:
* lack of motivation
* lack of impulse control
* lack of perseverance
* fear of failure
* inability to delay gratification
* too little/too much self-confidence
Analytical (componential) Facet (or Subtheory)
Analytical Intelligence similar to the standard psychometric definition of intelligence e.g. as measured by Academic problem solving: analogies and puzzles, and corresponds to his earlier componential intelligence. Sternberg considers this reflects how an individual relates to his internal world.
Sternberg believes that Analytical Intelligence (Academic problem-solving skills) is based on the joint operations of metacomponents and performance components and knowledge acquisition components of intelligence
Metacomponents: control, monitor and evaluate cognitive processing. These are the executive functions to order and organise performance and knowledge acquisition components. They are the higher-order processes that order and organise the performance components. Used to analyze problems and pick a strategy for solving them. They decide what to do and the performance components actually do it.
Performance Components: execute strategies assembled by the metacomponents. They are the basic operations involved in any cognitive act. They are the cognitive processes that enable us to encode stimuli, hold information in short-term memory, make calculations, perform mental calculations, mentally compare different stimuli, retrieve information from long-term memory.
Knowledge acquisition components: are the processes used in gaining and storing new knowledge - i.e. capacity for learning. The strategies you use to help memorize things exemplify the processes that fall into this category.
Sternberg feels that IDs in intelligence are related to IDs in the use of these cognitive processes. He feels that people with better reasoning ability generally spend more time understanding the problem but reach their solution faster than those who are less skilled at the task.
Creative (experiential) Facet (or Subtheory)
Creative Intelligence: this involves insights, synthesis and the ability to react to novel situations and stimuli. This he considers the Experiential aspect of intelligence and reflects how an individual connects the internal world to external reality.
Sternberg considers the Creative facet to consist of the ability which allows people to think creatively and that which allows people to adjust creatively and effectively to new situations.
Sternberg believes that more intelligent individuals will also move from consciously learning in a novel situation to automating the new learning so that they can attend to other tasks.
Two-Facet Subtheory (Novelty & Automatization)
Basic assumption: That there are two broad classes of abilities associated with intelligence: novelty skills and automatization skills. A task measures intelligence if it requires the ability to deal with novel demands or the ability to automatize information processing (two ends of a continuum).
Novel tasks or situations are good measures of intellectual ability because they assess an individual's ability to apply existing knowledge to new problems.
Practical (contextual) Facet (or Subtheory)
Practical Intelligence: this involves the ability to grasp, understand and deal with everyday tasks. This is the Contextual aspect of intelligence and reflects how the individual relates to the external world about him or her.
Sternberg states that Intelligence is: "Purposive adaptation to, shaping of, and selection of real-world environments relevant to one's life" (Sternberg, 1984, p.271)
Purposive means that intelligence is directed towards goals, however vague or subconscious they may be. This means that intelligence is indicated by one's attempts to adapt to one's environment.
Practical Intelligence can be said to be intelligence that operates in the real world. People with this type of intelligence can adapt to, or shape their environment. It might also be called “Street-smarts”. In measuring this facet, not only mental skills but attitudes and emotional factors that can influence intelligence are measured.
So this practical intelligence is a combination of:
(a) adaptation to the environment in order to have goals met
(b) changing the environment in order to have goals met
(c) or, if (a) and (b) don't work moving to a new environment in which goals can be met
Sternberg believes that individuals considered intelligent in one culture may be looked on as unintelligent in another.
An important asset of this theory is to avoid defining intelligence in terms of intelligence tests rather than performance in the everyday world (which is, after all, what intelligence tests try to predict!).
Measuring practical intelligence:
* Sternberg Multidimensional Abilities Test measures all 3 intelligences, on separate scales
* Sternberg and Wagner’s test of Practical Managerial Intelligence measures:
* ability to write effective memos
* ability to motivate people
* knowledge of when to delegate
* ability to “read” people
Classic definitions of intelligence
* "The ability to carry out abstract thinking."
* "The capacity for knowledge, and knowledge possessed."
* "The capacity to learn or to profit by experience."
* "The capacity to acquire capacity."
* "Intelligence is what is measured by intelligence tests."
* "A global concept that involves an individual's ability to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment."
* "Intelligence is a general factor that runs through all types of performance."
* "A person possesses intelligence insofar as he had learned, or can learn, to adjust himself to his environment."
(Colvin, cited in Sternberg, 1982, p.30)
* "Intelligence is adaption to the environment."
* "Intelligence is that faculty of mind by which order is perceived in a situation previously considered disordered."
(R.W. Young, cited in Kurzweil, 1999)
* "Intelligent activity consists of grasping the essentials in a given situation and responding appropriately to them."
* "Intelligence is the ability to use optimally limited resources - including time - to achieve goals."
* "Intelligence is what you do when you don't know what to do."
* "Intelligence is a hypothetical idea which we have defined as being reflected by certain types of behaviour."
Originally posted by Southern Guardian
Why do we have to lump everybody into races that bear little to no genetic differences? Why not take people by who they are and what person they make themselves out to be. Do we choose how we are born, where we are born, to what circumstances we found ourselves in interms of culture, race and religion?
I am my own man, everybody here is in their own individualism. Why not accept that fact? Is it so hard? Or is ones life so depressive and lacking in anything that they have to group themselves to celebrate something?