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History of slavery and the slave trade
Slavery traces back to the earliest records, such as the Bible and the Code of Hammurabi (ca. 1760 BCE), which refers to it as an established institution. Slavery in ancient cultures was known to occur in civilizations as old as Sumer, and it was found in every civilization, including Ancient Egypt, the Akkadian Empire, Assyria, Ancient Greece, Rome and parts of its empire, and the Islamic Caliphate. Such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, and the birth of slave children to slaves. Records of slavery in Ancient Greece go as far back as Mycenaean Greece. It is often said that the Greeks as well as philosophers such as Aristotle accepted the theory of natural slavery i.e. that some men are slaves by nature.
As the Roman Republic expanded outward, entire populations were enslaved, thus creating an ample supply. The people subjected to Roman slavery came from all over Europe and the Mediterranean. Greeks, Berbers, Germans, Britons, Thracians, Gauls (or Celts), Jews, Arabs, and many more were slaves used not only for labour, but also for amusement (e.g. gladiators and sex slaves). This oppression by an elite minority eventually led to slave revolts (see Roman Servile Wars); the Third Servile War led by Spartacus was the most famous and severe. By the late Republican era, slavery had become a vital economic pillar in the wealth of Rome.
13th century slave market in Yemen
The early medieval slave trade was mainly to the East: the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world were the destinations, pagan Central and Eastern Europe, along with the Caucasus and Tartary, were important sources. Viking, Arab, Greek and Jewish merchants (known as Radhanites) were all involved in the slave trade during the Early Middle Ages.
Medieval Spain and Portugal were the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Iberian Christian kingdoms, bringing back booty and slaves. In raid against Lisbon, Portugal in 1189, for example, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of Córdoba, in a subsequent attack upon Silves, Portugal in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves.
Over 10% of England’s population entered in the Domesday Book in 1086 were slaves. Slavery in early medieval Europe was so common that the Roman Catholic Church repeatedly prohibited it—or at least the export of Christian slaves to non-Christian lands was prohibited at, for example, the Council of Koblenz in 922, the Council of London (1102), and the Council of Armagh (1171). However, the moral aspect was not considered binding by church representatives in regards to the enslavement of Africans. The 15th century Portuguese exploration of the African coast is commonly regarded as the harbinger of European colonialism.
In 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas, granting Afonso V of Portugal the right to reduce any "Saracens, pagans and any other unbelievers" to hereditary slavery which legitimized slave trade under catholic beliefs of that time. This approval of slavery was reaffirmed and extended in his Romanus Pontifex bull of 1455. These papal bulls came to serve as a justification for the subsequent era of slave trade and European colonialism.
The Byzantine-Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe brought large numbers of Christian slaves into the Islamic world too. After the battle of Lepanto approximately 12,000 Christian galley slaves were freed from the Ottoman Turks. Christians were also selling Muslim slaves captured in war. The Knights of Malta attacked pirates and Muslim shipping, and their base became a centre for slave trading, selling captured North Africans and Turks.
Slavery was prominent presumably elsewhere in Africa long before the beginnings of the transatlantic slave trade. The maritime town of Lagos, Portugal, was the first slave market created in Portugal for the sale of imported African slaves - the Mercado de Escravos, opened in 1444. In 1441, the first slaves were brought to Portugal from northern Mauritania. By the year 1552 black African slaves made up 10 percent of the population of Lisbon. In the second half of the 16th century, the Crown gave up the monopoly on slave trade and the focus of European trade in African slaves shifted from import to Europe to slave transports directly to tropical colonies in the Americas - in the case of Portugal, especially Brazil. In the 15th century one third of the slaves were resold to the African market in exchange of gold.
Hamoud bin Mohammed, Sultan of Zanzibar from 1896 to 1902. He complied with British demands that slavery be banned in Zanzibar and that all the slaves be freed. Zanzibar was once East Africa's main slave-trading port, and under Omani Arabs in the 19th century as many as 50,000 slaves were passing through the city each year.
Spain had to fight against relatively powerful civilizations of the New World. However, the Spanish conquest of the indigenous peoples in the Americas was also facilitated by the spread of diseases (e.g. smallpox) due to lack of biological immunity. (although the natives retaliated by spreading diseases like syphilis among the Europeans.) Natives were used as forced labour (the Spanish employed the pre-Columbian draft system called the mita), but the diseases caused a labour shortage and so the Spanish colonists were gradually involved in the Atlantic slave trade. The first Europeans to use African slaves in the New World were the Spaniards who labourers on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola, where the alarming decline in the native population had spurred the first royal laws protecting the native population (Laws of Burgos, 1512-1513). The first African slaves arrived in Hispaniola in 1501. England played a prominent role in the Atlantic slave trade. The "slave triangle" was pioneered by Francis Drake and his associates. Slavery was a legal institution in all of the 13 American colonies, and the profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution.
The keeping of African slaves was a part of the colonization of the United States of America. Forcing the labor and thus the building of the nation that many enjoy to this day. The African people have endured great suffering at the hand of wealthy American land owners, or have they? Many slaves begun relationships with female descendants of land owners, thus perpetuating generations of "natural born" children.
As the issue of slaves becoming ever more "taboo" throughout the close of the 19th century, African slaves began to experience more benefits closley related to private citizenship. source
Today African Americans enjoy as many if not more benefits as the white American's enjoy.The descendants of black slaves should no be entitled to any repporations at all yet that is the case. The current people in relation to those who keep and cared for slaves are forced to "repay" the debt owed.
African American's That currently hold the title of " millionaire" has now rivaled that of any other. African American athletes are picked because of genetic superiorites and paid millions upon millions to play a game.
What makes this race of people so profitable?
[edit on 23-2-2009 by alyosha1981]
Originally posted by alyosha1981
The music market is flooded with hip hop music and "gangster rap" generating billions of dollars by making the "ghetto" life popular while artists reap the benefits. Exploiting the millions and millions of poverty stricken African African youth living in America today. These "artists" have plagued the market by making famous, the act of illegal drug selling and crime as a means of survival. Millions and millions of black and white American youth have thrown away their lives in atempt to emulate.
We pay African American sports stars Billion and billions of dollars a year to what ? play a game. Run a ball a few hundred yards? When paramedics and fireman make just below the federal poverty level. Why, Why has America become so remorseful that we will allow this kind of market?
Some caucasian people are so afraid of the intimidation posed by African American employees at their jobs that they dare not speak up for fear of being labelled as a "rasist" as African American's climb the ladder simply because of the color of their skin.
Folks I want to empart that I believe all men were created equal, however, since when was it "cool" to be a certain race? When was it ok to promote minorities simply because of their skin color? Why is there a "nigro college fund" Why not a white college fund?
The cause that they fought so hard for (anti seggregation) is exactly what they got...seggregation only this time it's politically correct.
50 percent drop out rate, I’m telling you, and people in jail, and women having children by five, six different men. Under what excuse, I want somebody to love me, and as soon as you have it, you forget to parent. Grandmother, mother, and great grandmother in the same room, raising children, and the child knows nothing about love or respect of any one of the three of them (clapping). All this child knows is “gimme, gimme, gimme.” These people want to buy the friendship of a child….and the child couldn’t care less. Those of us sitting out here who have gone on to some college or whatever we’ve done, we still fear our parents (clapping and laughter). And these people are not parenting. They’re buying things for the kid. $500 sneakers, for what? They won’t buy or spend $250 on Hooked on Phonics. (clapping) A\Kenneth Clark, somewhere in his home in upstate New York…just looking ahead. Thank God, he doesn’t know what’s going on, thank God. But these people, the ones up here in the balcony fought so hard. Looking at the incarcerated, these are not political criminals. These are people going around stealing Coca Cola. People getting shot in the back of the head over a piece of pound cake! Then we all run out and are outraged, “The cops shouldn’t have shot him” What the hell was he doing with the pound cake in his hand? (laughter and clapping). I wanted a piece of pound cake just as bad as anybody else (laughter) And I looked at it and I had no money. And something called parenting said if get caught with it you’re going to embarrass your mother. Not you’re going to get your butt kicked. No. You’re going to embarrass your mother. You’re going to embarrass your family. If knock that girl up, you’re going to have to run away because it’s going to be too embarrassing for your family. In the old days, a girl getting pregnant had to go down South, and then her mother would go down to get her. But the mother had the baby. I said the mother had the baby. The girl didn’t have a baby. The mother had the baby in two weeks. (laughter) We are not parenting. Ladies and gentlemen, listen to these people, they are showing you what’s wrong. People putting their clothes on backwards. –isn’t that a sign of something going on wrong? (laughter)
Brown Versus the Board of Education is no longer the white person’s problem. We’ve got to take the neighborhood back (clapping). We’ve got to go in there. Just forget telling your child to go to the Peace Corps. It’s right around the corner. (laughter) It’s standing on the corner. It can’t speak English. It doesn’t want to speak English. I can’t even talk the way these people talk. “Why you ain’t where you is go, ra,” I don’t know who these people are. And I blamed the kid until I heard the mother talk (laughter). Then I heard the father talk. This is all in the house. You used to talk a certain way on the corner and you got into the house and switched to English. Everybody knows it’s important to speak English except these knuckleheads. You can’t land a plane with “why you ain’t…” You can’t be a doctor with that kind of crap coming out of your mouth. There is no Bible that has that kind of language. Where did these people get the idea that they’re moving ahead on this. Well, they know they’re not, they’re just hanging out in the same place, five or six generations sitting in the projects when you’re just supposed to stay there long enough to get a job and move out.
Why is it whites can' t have pride or organizations that are not considered racist? Gays, blacks, Hispanic you name it can all have ties to "ethnic" groups without fear of being labeled racist. If a black person says black pride there is nothing wrong with this, If I were to say I have white pride(which I do) am I a racist.?I have always heard celebrate diversity-No one proposes that Howard University be made more diverse by admitting whites.How about the National Hispanic University in San Jose (CA) I don't hear anyone saying it would be more diverse by admitting non-hispanics. Any white school, organization, neighborhood is suffering from a lack of diversity. Are whites being asked to devote themselves to the interests of other races and to ignore the interests of their own.? Do whites have an equal share in affirmative action? One example, here in Ohio the civil service exam for police officers gives and automatic 5 points just for skin color other than white. Why are we only taught in schools about black slavery, what about Irish slavery.? We are only taught about the Holocaust, what about the millions and millions of Russians that died in WW2. What's being done about the white farmers being slaughtered in Africa? wheres the media? If Ireland were to kill off the black farmers it would be front page news. What about poor white children in America,?There is this group that believes in white pride, they started this collection for poor white kids in Appalacia,and they went to schools and gave out school supplies, NO other organization was doing this.Newspaper article read White racist group gives out school supplies. If I were to reject the ideas of non-white groups or say the NAACP is racist for giving supplies to poor blacks, what would I be called. I thought we were to be diverse. Some may even be thinking I' m racist just for writing this, well I have white pride and proud of my heritage so call me what you want.