There were 703 adoptions in Norway last year. Adoptions of stepchildren have increased from 101 in 2004 to 236 in 2007. Some of the increase since 2005 concerns step-parents in partnerships adopting the partner’s child. The number of foreign adoptions has decreased since 2005.
In the latest four years, the number of adoptions of stepchildren has more than doubled, and the 236 adoptions of stepchildren in 2007 represent 34 per cent of all the adoptions last year. The reason for the increase in adoptions of stepchildren the two previous years is, among other factors, that more partners in partnerships adopt their partner’s child. Last year, 30 per cent of the stepchildren were adopted by a partner in partnership, which is an increase of 13 percentage points from 2006.
In the 1970s stepchild adoptions made up about 46 per cent of all adoptions. In the 1980s the share was 35 per cent, and in the 1990s 23 per cent. The share of stepchild adoptions in 2007 is hence at the same level as in the 1980's.
Decrease in foreign adoptions
In the two previous years the number of foreign adoptions has decreased from 704 to 417. The main reason is that the period of waiting for an adoption from China has increased. Still, most of the children adopted inter-country in 2007 came from China. In addition to China, many foreign adopted children came from Colombia, South Korea and Ethiopia. The decrease in foreign adoptions was considerably smaller in 2007 than in the year before.
Adoptive parents are not representative of parents in general. All the surveys carried out in Scandinavia show that working-class families are under-represented among adoptive families (Rørbeck 1989, Kvifte-Andresen 1992, Cederblad et al 1994, Botvar 1995 and 1999, Dalen & Rygvold 1999). Botvar (1999) compares the father’s occupation in both adoptive families and families with their own natural-born children and finds that the humanistic-social middle level is particularly heavily over-represented among adoptive fathers. According to this survey, every fourth foreign adoptee has a father working in the health, social-welfare and education sector. We also find the same tendency among the adoptive mothers (Dalen & Rygvold 1999).
The fact that so many adoptive parents have occupations that mean they often come into contact with children and teenagers and with the welfare services may be positive for the children, since these professions require the parents to be educated in subjects such as psychology and pedagogics. In addition, we know that many adoptive parents take part in courses arranged by the various adoption associations. For that reason, the families should have relatively good financial and educational resources.
Norway has invested a good deal of effort in ensuring optimal conditions for families with small children. Great importance has been attached to enabling parents to combine work and family life.
The parental benefit scheme enables parents to stay at home with their child during the first year of the child’s life. Parents who adopt a child under the age of 15 are entitled to largely the same benefits as those that apply when a child is born.
In order to be entitled to the parental or adoption benefit, the mother must have been employed and earning a pensionable income for at least 6 of the 10 months immediately prior to the commencement of the benefit period. The father must have been employed and earning a pensionable income for 6 of the 10 months immediately prior to the commencement of his part of the benefit period. The pensionable income earned during the qualifying period must be equal to at least half the annual National Insurance basic amount, i.e. it must be at least NOK 30,350 (2005).
The parental leave period in connection with childbirth has gradually been extended. Parents now receive parental benefits for 53 weeks at 80 per cent pay or 43 weeks with full pay. The corresponding adoption benefit period is 50 or 40 weeks. For births and adoptions after 1 July 2006 the parental leave period will be extended by one week to 54/44 weeks for births and 51/41 weeks for adoptions.
The main religion in Norway is The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway, to which 89% of the population belongs to and which is the religion of the state. Church and state are not separated in Norway, but complete religious freedom is guaranteed. The remaining 11% of the population belong to Islam, the Roman-Catholic church, various Protestant denominations, other religions or are non-
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway today
The church receives support from the state, and the main reason for not separating these two is that one wants the Christian values to have a strong position in the society. “Christian values” in this context mean what most people would consider obvious moral and ethic standards - not stealing, not beating up others, respect and honor others etc.
Religion is not a big issue in Norway. There are various degrees of religious strictness in the church. Some parishes are very strict and want to do as much as possible completely by the Bible, but most people have a relaxed relationship to the religion. The western parts of Norway are traditionally regarded as Puritan.
Many of the members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church are non-practicing, or they only attend services at special occasions such as weddings and funerals. To differ between practicing and non-practicing Christians, there is an expression in Norway called “being personally Christian”. That expression means that one believes in God, and is a member of the Church for this reason. Those who are members of the Church, but not personally Christians are members because that’s how it’s always been, they were born into it and haven’t really had to take a stand for or against.
Men and women in the Church have equal rights to become priests, bishops and so on. The King is the head of the Church, and he nominates the clergy.
The Parishes often run kindergartens and missionaries, and organize various church activities.
Most Norwegians (83 per cent) belong to the Church of Norway and many people's religious lives find expression in church rituals and holidays.
There are 1,600 Church of Norway churches and chapels. Parish work is led by a pastor and an elected parish council. The country is geographically divided into 1,284 parishes, 106 deaneries and rural deaneries and 11 dioceses. The members of elected parish councils total around 9,000.
The Church of Norway General Synod meets annually. 80 of the 86 delegates are the members of the 11 diocesan councils. The Church of Norway National Council, led by a lay person, is the Synod's executive body. The Council on Ecumenical and International Relations is the executive in international and ecumenical matters. The Sami Church Council is responsible for the Church of Norway work among Norways indigiounes sami people.
Central administrative functions are carried out by the Royal Ministry of Culture and Church Affairs.
Financial responsibility for salaries and the maintenance of buildings is shared by state and municipal authorities. Additional parish activity largely depends on offertory money and voluntary activities.
The King is the constitutional head of the Church of Norway. He exercises this authority through the Council of State. Legislation concerning the Church goes through the Storting, Norway's parliament.
There are more than 1,200 clergy, of whom around 19 per cent are women (ordained since 1961). The first woman bishop of the Church of Norway, Rosemarie Köhn, was February 1993 appointed to the See of Hamar.
An average of 77 per cent of infants are baptised in the Church of Norway and a around 67 per cent of the young people are confirmed. The majority of weddings take place in church, and the great majority of funerals are church funerals.
I think attitude goes a long way to explain what's going on in Russia. Sure, there are circumstances, such as financial or emotional considerations, that may lead so many Russian women to have abortions but I wonder what role plain acceptance plays in that culture.
True story: I was 17 and over my friend's place. Her mom was hanging out with us as we discussed another girl we knew having a child. Her mom said 'why didn't she have an abortion? What is it with girls these days that they think their child is the special child that should be born when they themselves are so young? There will be other pregnancies, why can't they just wait? I had 5 abortions before having _____, and she's had two already.' ('She' being her daughter, my 17-year old friend).
Since then, I've heard open, frank abortion discussion from Russian women I barely know: 'Yeah, I had one and then I got pregnant again right after that so I had another one.' 'No, she decided to get an abortion and wait until after he gets the promotion.' 'If we stay in NY I'll keep it, but I'm not moving to Miami and having a baby in the next year.' Russians are the only people I've heard actually be pro-abortion and unapologetically so.
For most of the history of the Soviet Union, women relied primarily on induced abortion to control their fertility. Even today, though the use of contraception has increased markedly in the former Soviet Union, the region has one of the highest abortion rates in the world.
Many believed that the Soviet "culture of abortion" was so ingrained that abortion rates would be slow to decline, regardless of the availability of contraceptives. The experience of most of the former socialist states in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia during the past decade suggests otherwise.
Even when modern contraceptives became available some 50 years later, rates of induced abortion remained high because of the poor quality of Soviet-made contraceptives, erratic supplies, fears about the health effects of hormonal contraceptives, and opposition by government authorities and medical professionals to contraceptive use.
All this began to change in the tumultuous period before and after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. "Because of changes in the government and the ability of international donors to start playing a role, contraception suddenly became much more available," says Dr. Julie DaVanzo, director of the U.S.-based RAND's Population Matters Project and coauthor of a study on Russian population trends.
Increases in contraceptive prevalence in the former Soviet republics have been attributed to greater availability of contraceptive services and supplies, primarily through the private sector and nongovernmental organizations.6 Support from international donors, such as the United Nations Population Fund and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), has also been important.7 Since 1996, USAID has invested in a project in Russia to expand access to effective contraception and to reduce abortion.8
Contraceptives and hormone containing remedies are relatively expensive in Russia as the monthly average income salary is 1500 R (54$) and a condom costs around 9 R (0,3$) and pills between 50 and 300 R (1,8 and 10$). In Russia, abortion still remains the main method of birth control. Abortion is legally permitted under the following instances: at a woman's request within the 12th week of pregnancy; within 22 weeks if there are social conditions under which pregnancy, child birth and child rearing would become a heavy burden for a woman; and at any time if it is established that pregnancy could harm the health of the mother or the child. Russia's abortion rate is one of the highest in the world. For every 100 births there are approximately 200 abortions. Due to the lack of funds in the public health services it is not always possible for a woman to have an abortion 'at her own will' free of charge. An abortion costs 5$ in rural regions and 50$ in Moscow. Programs of family planning were applied between 1992 and 1996, making the number of abortions decline by 25% . But in the following years, there were less or no funds put in the programs, because of pressures mainly by religious groups, and the percentage of abortions raised again. Sexual education is given since 1996 in schools in Moscow and St Pet but not in every establishment
In Russia, a package of spermicide can cost two-thirds of the minimum monthly salary, according to the New York-based Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, which recently finished an analysis of the region. "Chronic shortages and high costs render contraception difficult to access and thus effectively unavailable to the majority of women in Central and Eastern Europe," the center said. "A couple will not spend that much on contraception if it is that expensive and would rather just risk it," said Katherine Hall-Martinez, deputy director of the center's international program.
In the Russian federation, "the main method of fertility regulation is as yet the use of clinical abortions," the World Health Organization wrote in its latest study of that country.
Supplies of modern contraceptives in Russia, it said, are "either unavailable in sufficient quantities or unaffordable for the majority of the population."
Contraceptive use in Russia is relatively recent and despite a rapid decline in recent years, abortion is still a preferred family planning method. Among modern methods, intrauterine devices are the most widely used, followed by condoms. Hormonal contraceptives have not reached full acceptance in Russia, but the sales of these products have reportedly increased by 160% since 2002.
The president-sponsored bill provides Russian women who give birth or adopt a second child after January 1, 2007, with a special one time payout for each additional child. The payouts are currently set at 250,000 rubles (nearly $9,400), but will be revised annually based on inflation rates. The money would be available for use by the family as soon as the newly born child turns three (or following three years from his or her adoption). Alexandre Babakov, the leader of the Rodina (Motherland) Party, stated that this law is crucial to Russia's effort to overcome its grave demographic crisis.
Pregnant women or women with a child 1 to 3 years of age are strictly forbidden to work at night. When a pregnant woman leaves her job to give birth and look after her child, there is a 'requirement for a 3 year-paid maternity leave for child care'. Therefore young women are discriminated when applying for a job.
Since Adam and Eve were told “to be fruitful and multiply,” children have been an essential part of family life, especially for the Jewish people. The Biblical matriarchs Sarah and Rachel, as well as later Hannah, agonized over their inability to bear children. In Israel, where Jewish family values have remained particularly strong, children are seen as a “bracha” (blessing).
1.The woman is under the legal age for marriage or above 40.
2.The pregnancy is the result of incestuous or extra-marital relations
3.The unborn child will suffer from a physical or mental deformity.
4.The continuation of pregnancy will endanger the life of the mother, or may cause her physical or mental damage.
director of the medical center (to which the application has been sent), the director of the maternity ward, the director of the neonatology ward, the director of a genetics center, and a chief social worker.
In practice, most requests for abortion are granted, and leniency is shown especially under the clause for emotional or psychological damage to the mother. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics report from 2004, 19,500 legal abortions were performed in Israel in 2003, while 200 requests for abortion were denied. Most abortions were authorized because the woman was unmarried (42%), because of illegal circumstances (11%), health risks to the mother (about 20%), age of the woman (11%) and fetal birth defects (about 17%). 
Birth control pills are a popular method of contraception in Israel, used by about a quarter of Israeli women (23%), according to a Geocartography Institute survey conducted on behalf of Bayer Schering Pharma.
Over the last 20 years Israel has witnessed a gradual expansion of family planning services in both the public and private health care sectors. However, despite fairly universal heath care coverage and the broad range of medical assistance provided in the basic basket of services, contraceptives continue to fall outside of the basic basket of services offered to women. Israeli sick funds offer contraceptive devices at a fee which varies from 170 NIS for an IUD fitting at clinics operated by the General Sick Fund (which insures approximately 75% of the population) to 400 NIS in the other major funds. Although oral contraceptive pills are offered at a subsidized price (approximately 75% of the actual cost), this fact is not widely publicized and most clinics prefer to dispense the IUD to women after childbirth. Diaphragms are neither encouraged nor subsidized. Other non-prescriptive methods, such as foam, rhythm, and withdrawal are perceived as outside of medical jurisdiction, and are therefore rarely discussed by doctors as alternatives.
By Jewish law, a child born to an unwed mother is legal, and there is no stigma attached to his/her birthright. It is the mother who carries the burden of shame, according to the religious ruling and much popular belief, and not the child.
The first concerns social recognition, since solo parent families do not fall within the normative family pattern of one male and one female parent.
the question of recognition is especially meaningful in regard to families headed by women who have chosen the solo parent pattern, be they single, separated, or divorcees who do not remarry.
Public policy regarding solo parent families developed over the past two decades, coinciding with an increase in the incidence of such families. It was a period of severe pressure to lower the real wages. Thus, it is not surprising that despite the increasing numbers of solo parent families, no real effort was made to improve their ability to support themselves by changing the wage system. Instead, efforts to assist these families focused on the social safety net. Although the safety net did provide generous assistance to solo parent families in the 1990s, as we will see, this generosity did not survive the decade: the 2003 budget severely reduces assistance to solo parent families and threatens to undermine their economic self-sufficiency.
"The vast majority of abortions are unnecessary and strictly forbidden according to halacha because they are carried out even when the pregnancies do not endanger the mother's health," the rabbis wrote in their decision.
The rabbis further believe that abortions are delaying the messiah, based on an expression uttered by the Jewish sages which can be construed that the messiah will not arrive until all children to be born to Jewish mothers are born.
As a general rule, abortion in Judaism is permitted only if there is a direct threat to the life of the mother by carrying the fetus to term or through the act of childbirth. In such a circumstance, the baby is considered tantamount to a rodef, a pursuer6 after the mother with the intent to kill her. Nevertheless, as explained in the Mishna,7 if it would be possible to save the mother by maiming the fetus, such as by amputating a limb, abortion would be forbidden. Despite the classification of the fetus as a pursuer, once the baby's head or most of its body has been delivered, the baby's life is considered equal to the mother's, and we may not choose one life over another, because it is considered as though they are both pursuing each other.
Because demand for adoptive children far outstrips supply, there is a waiting period averaging seven years for a healthy, normal infant in Israel and only about 150 Israeli children are adopted annually.
there are also only a small number of babies available for adoption in Israel each year. Many Israelis, for that reason, choose to adopt internationally.
Israel's attorney general said on Sunday that same sex-couples will be allowed to adopt children that are not biologically linked to either partner.
For children to be available for adoption, the biological parents must forego any and all rights and obligations toward the child. Many parents, although unable to care for their children, are unwilling to completely sever ties forever. In addition, Adoption Services does not seek adoptive parents for children over the age of 12.
The allowance is equal to your salary and is subject to the same deductions. It is paid at the middle of your maternity leave.
The duration of the paid maternity leave is as follows:
If you have worked for 6-10 months – you are entitled to 7 weeks of paid maternity leave;
If you have worked for more than 10 months - you are entitled to 14 weeks of paid maternity leave.
You may take up to half the paid leave before the birth. For example, if you have worked for more than 10 months, you may take up to 7 weeks leave before giving birth and the rest after the birth.
To undertake the training to avoid taking the life of beings. This precept applies to all living beings not just humans. All beings have a right to their lives and that right should be respected.
"Of course, abortion, from a Buddhist viewpoint, is an act of killing and is negative, generally speaking. But it depends on the circumstances. If the unborn child will be retarded or if the birth will create serious problems for the parent, these are cases where there can be an exception. I think abortion should be approved or disapproved according to each circumstance."
Taking the life of any living thing is generally condemned in Buddhism, so of course killing a fetus would not meet with easy approval. There are, however, exceptions — there are different levels of life and not all life is equal. Abortion to save the life of the mother or if not done for selfish and hateful reasons is permissible.
Buddhists face a difficulty where an abortion is medically necessary to save the life of the mother and so a life will be lost whether there is or isn't an abortion. In such cases the moral status of an abortion will depend on the intentions of those carrying it out. If the decision is taken compassionately, and after long and careful thought then although the action may be wrong the moral harm done will be reduced by the good intentions involved
The foetus suffers bad karma because its soul is deprived of the opportunities that an earthly existence would have given it to earn good karma, and is returned immediately to the cycle of birth, death and rebirth. Thus abortion hinders its spiritual progress.
Either we are intentionally taking life or we are not, and if we are, then we violate Buddhism's First Precept. The response a Buddhist may make, such Ochiai Seiko's above, is in essence, "Yes, we should always avoid the ending of a life, no matter how insignificant it may seem." But 'life' is an ambiguous term, and the ending of one form of life in the service of others is not necessarily prohibited in Buddhism. And if one's intention is not so much to end a life as to rescue others, then we are not dealing with a simple case of intentionally killing.
Child requirements: Japanese law does not define an orphan. Rather, a "child who requires protection" is defined as:
- A child born out of wedlock
- An abandoned infant
- A child whose parent(s) has/have died or disappeared
- A child whose parents are incapable of providing support
- An abused child
The Child Guidance Center (CGC) is the local government authority responsible for determining whether a child requires protection. The CGC may issue a certificate to a "child who requires protection," but only if the child has been placed under the care of the child welfare authorities. The CGC will not issue a certificate if the child is to be adopted abroad or if the child will benefit from a privately arranged adoption. Under Japanese law, an adoptable child is any minor who has been irrevocably released for adoption by its sole surviving parent, by a legal guardian, by both parents (if both parents are living and remain married), by the natural mother (in the case of an out-of-wedlock birth), or by the institution that has custody of the child. If the child is not Japanese, the Family Court with jurisdiction over the adoption will consider an adoptable child to be any child who has met the pre-adoption requirements of the child's country of nationality. The surviving parent has the legal capacity to transfer custody of the child to a second party by signing a "statement of release of orphan for emigration and adoption." If the surviving natural parent is a minor (i.e. under 20 years old), then the natural parent's parent or guardian must also sign a similar statement.
Age Requirements: In special adoptions, prospective adoptive parents must be over 25 years of age. In regular adoption, prospective adoptive parents must be at least 20 years of age.
People like the Sakamotos are in high demand, as residential child-protection institutions overflow with abused children in need of caring guardians. But by law, abusive parents can hold kids back from foster care. And few Japanese families volunteer to invite nonkin children into their fold.
Biological parents lose their say over whether their child can be removed from foster care when the placement is done with court permission. However, in cases where a biological parent initially gave the go-ahead for foster care, the parent can revoke it under Article 27 of the Child Welfare Law, which simply spells out the process for gaining approval from child-welfare officials. For years, Anne Funds Project has tried to persuade politicians to revise the Child Abuse Prevention Law to allow courts to partially sever the custody rights of abusive parents so their children can be more securely placed in foster care. That would put Japan more in line with North America and Europe.